This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our cookie policy Cookie Policy
Got It
0 Selected Clear


Showing 1 - 20 of 351

Most Recent

By human evolution, anthropogenesis or homination we mean the process of origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a distinct species and its diffusion on Earth.
It is an interdisciplinary subject, which includes physiology, primatology, archeology, geology, linguistics and genetics. In a taxonomic sense it concerns, in addition to the genus Homo, all the species of the seven genera of the Hominina sub-tribe, of which man is the only living representative.
According to these sciences, the evolutionary history of our species is that of Homo Sapiens, which seems to have made its first appearance on Earth about 200,000 years ago.
If on Earth every animal and plant species follows time cycles with precision, it is plausible to think that humanity, as a whole, also follows a precise evolutionary cycle.
In this sense, my hypothesis is that there is a mathematical correlation between the number of years that have passed since the appearance of Homo Sapiens on Earth, the number of days that make up an Earth year, the natural number 216, and ϕ, the golden number.
In fact, we discover that (216K / ϕ) ^ (1/2) is equal to 365.37, which corresponds to the number of days that currently make up an earth year, plus 0.128, which in any case is consistent with reality, since in the past years it is assumed that the Earth took longer than today to revolve around the sun.
Alternatively, we can observe that, considering the average of the days that make up the Earth years of the last 216K years with the approximate value of 365.37, we obtain that from the mathematical relation ϕ (365.37) ^ 2 we obtain 216K.
What can we expect from Homo Sapiens when the value of 216K years from its appearance on Earth is reached?
0 0 Votes
For years, the ecological footprint of humanity and its activities has exceeded the biocapacity of the Earth, which in the current period (2019-2020) is causing the global collapse of our civilization.
0 0 up - 0 down
Russia just approved a coronavirus vaccine for use in tens of thousands of people, though it has not been thoroughly tested for effectiveness, according to news reports.
Russia named the newly approved vaccine "Sputnik V," in reference to the world's first artificial satellite, launched during the space race, Reuters reported. Russian state television has framed the worldwide effort to develop a coronavirus vaccine as a similar "race," and in announcing the approval of Sputnik V, President Vladimir Putin essentially proclaimed Russia the frontrunner, according to The New York Times.

"We must be grateful to those who made that first step very important for our country and the entire world," Putin said in a cabinet meeting Tuesday morning (Aug. 11) in reference to the vaccine developers, according to The Associated Press.
"I know [the vaccine] has proven efficient and forms a stable immunity," Putin noted, despite there being no published data from early human tests of the vaccine and no late-stage human trials currently underway. The rush to approve the vaccine has raised concerns from scientists within Russia and abroad, who say that only carefully designed human trials, which include thousands of people, can clearly demonstrate that a vaccine is safe and effective enough for public use.
0 0 Votes
The pandemic is an immense disaster for all peoples. But has there been (and is there) a political use of fear by certain ruling elites? And for what purposes? Are those who believe that a gigantic and disturbing political experiment is taking place?

Some "non-aligned" thinkers talked about it and immediately the delegitimate media system branded them as "conspiracy theorists". But to note that something strange is happening is also - for example - the thinker symbol of mainstream Europeanism, Bernard Henri Lévy, who has just published a book: "The virus that makes mad".

Lévy rightly notes that the Covid epidemic was by no means an apocalyptic novelty in our years. He recalls the Hong Kong flu, "after May '68", which killed a million "by pulmonary hemorrhage or suffocation" or, ten years earlier, the Asian flu, which also came from China, which made two million dead.

But then the planetary panic of today did not occur. Lévy says she is "frozen", but not from the pandemic: from the "very strange way in which we reacted this time", from the "epidemic of fear that gripped the world".

In fact, “we have seen cities all over the world become ghost towns. We have all seen, from one end of the planet to the other ... whole peoples tremble and get dragged into their homes, sometimes with truncheons, like wild animals in their lairs ".

Lévy wonders if it is the “victory of the sages of the world who see in this great confinement - (…) the 'great internment' theorized by Michel Foucault in the texts in which he described the power systems of the future - the general test of a new type detention and house arrest of the bodies ”. Or if it is "the opposite" or "the reassuring sign that the world has changed, that finally sacralizes life and that chooses life between it and the economy".

The second hypothesis seems to me radically refuted by many facts and data that show how human life in the world has totally lost its sacredness.

It would remain the first, but unfortunately Lévy does not analyze it. Of course, he notes that "it was the first time we have seen all the critical minds of the ultra-left galaxy applauding a state of emergency." But he stops to protest against fear.

However, he mentions in passing the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben who - being from the left - sparked discontent and controversy on the left because, reflecting on the "ethical and political consequences" of the storm Covid captured "the transformation of the political paradigms that the exception measures went drawing. "

In his book "Where are we at?" assesses the Covid affair "in a broader historical perspective" and concludes that something important was being (and is being) experienced.

He writes: "If the powers that govern the world have decided to take the pretext of a pandemic to transform the paradigms of their government of men and things from top to bottom, this means that those models were in their eyes in progressive, inexorable decline and they were no longer adequate to the new needs (...) the ruling powers decided to abandon without regret the paradigms of bourgeois democracies, with their rights, their parliaments and their constitutions, to replace them with new devices of which we can only glimpse the drawing, probably not yet completely clear. "

Can one really use "the pretext of a pandemic" politically or does Agamben exaggerate? In fact, there are those who, already a few years ago, invited to "use" a possible pandemic for praiseworthy political purposes (obviously, in his opinion).

In 2009 - when the spread of swine flu was feared - the famous French economist and technocrat Jacques Attali, as an acute analyst, in an article on "L'Express", wrote: "History teaches us that humanity does not evolve in a significant way except when it is truly afraid: it then first of all puts in place defense mechanisms; sometimes intolerable (scapegoats and totalitarianisms); sometimes unnecessary (distraction); sometimes effective (therapeutic strategies, rejecting all previous moral principles if necessary). Then, once the crisis is over, it transforms these mechanisms to make them compatible with individual freedom and include them in a democratic health policy. This initial pandemic, "Attali wrote," could trigger one of these structural fears. "

In particular Attali, foreseeing the need to govern "prevention and control mechanisms" for "an equitable distribution of drugs and vaccines", wrote: "We will therefore, much faster than the economic reason alone would have produced, to lay the foundations of a true world government "and" in the meantime we could at least hope for the implementation of a true European policy on the matter ".
Attali in 2006 published "A brief history of the future" and already there he envisioned a "world government" that marked the end of American hegemony and saw "the European Union at the forefront of hyper-democracy". But his utopia had the traits of a dark dystopia.
0 0 Votes
No-Covid denier marches follow one another in different regions of the world as the epidemic continues to sow disease and death. The appeal to freedom trampled on by biopower resounds like a mantra not only among the masses but also among illustrious intellectuals.
In the no-Covid gatherings it is surrounded, more or less deliriously, by ideological reasons, first of all that of the accusation of the liberticidal state, of the abuse of power, of the risk of a totalitarian return made possible by the political extension, not necessary but only strategic and instrumental, of the state of exception. In this symptomatic manifestation, political extremisms touch each other, not without raising a disturbing effect: it is striking to have to note that the irritation in the face of health and safety measures assimilates discourses that find their inspiration in deeply antagonistic ideologies. Yet the libertarian rhetoric seems to be exactly the same: the reference to the Covid danger transforms our democracies into disturbing masks of a totalitarian state. Putting on the mask again, still demanding social distancing, not considering the virus completely defeated yet means endorsing an authoritarian exercise of power that compresses our inalienable rights, means authorizing a clearly liberticidal political practice.
In my opinion, this is a criticism that has as its foundation a blindly individualistic version of freedom that does not take into account any criteria of solidarity and sharing and which, not surprisingly, has had its greatest and unfortunate international representatives in Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro. Political hooliganism irresponsible of these two tragic leaders has a ghostly matrix that we could roughly define pubertal-adolescent: «Death and illness do not exist and if they did exist they would not concern me; the omnipotence of my image is immune to any risk; if someone else is hit it is part of the game but this fact will not determine the end of the game of which I remain master ». How can we fail to see the connection between this ghostly matrix that clouds the supporters of liberticidal rhetoric and the one that ignites, in this very difficult summer, the pre-political fights among young people, the tendency to violent drive discharge which takes the erratic forms of intolerance and aggressive protest towards everything that represents public order, the need for limits, respect for the law?
If the trauma of Covid forced us to be adults, to have a vision of life that cannot be restricted to that of our Ego, to verify the impotence of our individual actions if not in concert with those of our neighbor, this recent and new anti-political wave shows, once again, how anthropologically difficult it is to see beyond our individual life, to grasp the solidarity dimension of freedom, to respect the collective dimension of the social bond. It is no coincidence that the denial attitude belongs clinically at the time of pathological adolescence where the absolute claim of one's freedom appears unhooked from any ethical reference to that of responsibility considered only as an imposture to harness the inherently indomitable force of a freedom that does not want to submit to anything other than to herself and who, above all, refuses to assume the consequences of her acts. Here again the paradigms of Trump and Bolsonaro stand out. Their reckless political choices have generated consequences of death and destruction that have crippled their peoples. Their political hooliganism is therefore not psychologically different from the one that inspires the inclination to fight, to destroy everything, to aggressive discharge as an end in itself, to the rejection of the law that have always marked the dimension, both desperate and omnipotent, of pathological adolescence. The time of the restrictions of freedoms imposed by solidarity cannot be tolerated by those who think of their freedom as an absolute right that comes before any other right. From those who forget that an adult life is one that strives to take upon themselves, first of all, the consequences of their actions.
0 0 Votes
Nature seems to operate not only in real time, which we all know well, but also in imaginary time. The term imaginary refers to the mathematical concept (formulated for the first time at the end of the 16th century) of imaginary number, that is, of the square root of a negative number. So there is not only real time, which we know well: it is in imaginary time, where the distinction between past, present and future disappears, that Nature orchestrates the most subtle quantum phenomena.

The theory of Special Relativity in 1905 radically changed the concepts of space and time. Not only do they lose the connotation of absolute quantities, but they become relative, elastic and integrate into a single four-dimensional fabric in which reality takes place.
The quantum revolution also discovers a new possible temporal dimension: imaginary time.
In imaginary time the distinction between past, present and future disappears.
Today, science begins to wonder if it is in this dimension that the phenomena of "Synchronicity" and "Near Death Experience" take place.
0 0 Votes
The Hi-Tech filtering solution for ventilation systems.

With increasing air pollution, the demand for better air filtration is increasing, just as we try to contain the energy impact of the plants as much as possible with a view to sustainable development: these needs appear in stark contrast to each other, however active electrostatic filters are capable of providing an effective solution.
In fact, any "mechanical" type air filter, ie whose efficiency depends mainly on phenomena of mechanical interference between the particles in transit and the filtering fibrous matrix, undergoes a progressive increase in pressure drops, due to the accumulation of transverse deposits with respect to the air flow.
For example, a medium-high efficiency paper filter, class F7-F8 according to UNI EN 779, can be characterized by initial pressure drops of 100-150 Pa, which can increase up to 450 Pa at the end of its operating life. Over the operating time, the increase in pressure drops leads to an increase in the electricity absorbed by the fans to guarantee the design flow rate, or a progressive reduction in the flow rate in systems that are unable to correctly compensate.
Active electrostatic filters, on the other hand, "remove" the suspended particles from the air flow and precipitate them on plate collectors, which are arranged along the direction of crossing. Thanks to this property, electrostatic filters offer very low pressure drops, almost constant during normal operating life, which ends when the thickness of the deposit begins to disturb the electric field, instead of preventing the passage of air, as happens in "mechanical" filters. In the case of an Expansion Electronic FE active electrostatic filter, for example, for the same efficiency class considered for the comparison with the "mechanical" filter, the pressure drops are constant and are around 30 Pa.

Many studies have shown that one of the biggest problems in ventilation systems is the reduction in flow that occurs after about 2-3 years of operation.
This fact is normally caused by the accumulation of dust and dirt on fans, batteries, channels and other system components. Furthermore, this contamination is the ideal medium for the proliferation of bacteria, microorganisms and molds which, in turn, determine an unhealthy ventilation system. Furthermore, a reduction in flow means that the ventilation system does not fulfill one of its primary functions.
If it is true that the filtration system is the main defendant, the solutions can alternatively be:

a) Increase the frequency of cleaning operations on the air handling unit, batteries, fans and ducts.
b) Improve the filtration system by adopting filters that have a good efficiency on the whole spectrum of dust (coarse, thin and ultra-thin).

Expansion Electronic's FE electrostatic active filters fully meet this second requirement.

Achieving environmental and economic improvement goals is also increasingly a concern in the HVAC sector.
Considering the type of "mechanical" filters, it can be seen that the higher the class of filtration, the more frequent the intervention for replacing the filter must be and proportionately the capacity of pollutant accumulation will be lower.
Expansion Electronic's FE electrostatic active filters have a threefold advantage over "mechanical" filters:

a) The storage capacity of pollutant is considerably higher. For example, for an FE 600 filter (592x592), the storage capacity is 600 g of DEHS ISO 12103-A2 dust, about four times higher than that of an H10 filter. This reduces the frequency of maintenance interventions and the consequent costs for the disposal of "mechanical" filters.
b) Unlike the "mechanical" filters, the active electrostatic filters can be regenerated and reintegrated into the system. Their cleaning takes place through water and detergent. If the maintenance is carried out correctly, the active electrostatic filters can last many years (on average 10-15).
c) As previously explained in the section dedicated to energy efficiency, active electrostatic filters have significantly lower pressure drops, allowing for significant energy savings.

In ventilation systems that install "mechanical" filters, there is a possible formation and release of toxic microbial products from decomposition, such as endotoxins.
On the contrary, the electrostatic filter has a high antibacterial power due to its high efficiency on submicronic particles and the action of the electric field. The results of some tests carried out at the ILH Institute of Air Hygiene in Berlin and the Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia show that the filter systems of Expansion Electronic are able to eliminate air-dispersed bacteria, yeasts and molds from the air with an efficiency ranging from 98.53% to 99.96%.

In indoor environments, the presence of ultra-fine powders (PM 1, PM 0.4 and lower) is increasingly found, which reach values ​​much higher than those found outdoors. This fact is mainly due to the accumulation of dust resulting from the introduction of outside air (especially winter) not properly treated, and to the difficulties related to their elimination.
99.9% of all the particles present in the atmospheric air are less than 1μm.
Ultra-fine powders and nanopowders are the most dangerous for health as they reach the lung alveoli and from here enter the bloodstream. They are the most difficult to catch.
A marked filtering action towards the ultrathin air dusts allows to act decisively on the prevention of many pathologies, even serious ones attributable to the effect of the mineral nano-micro-powders such as chromium, iron, lead, etc. (see the new medical discipline of nanopathology).
The choice of particularly effective filters towards ultra-fine dust is a guarantee for decontamination from microorganisms (bacteria-viruses) present in the air and their decomposition which is one of the causes of sick building syndrome.
The electrostatic active filters of the Expansion Electronic FE series have a high filtration efficiency on all aspects of dust. As an example, at a filter crossing speed of 1.5 m / s, an FE filter offers a filtration efficiency of 98.8% on a particle size of 0.4 µm and 98.4% on 0.13 µm.
To achieve these performances with "mechanical" filters it is necessary to use absolute filters.

The UNI 11254 standard classifies active electrostatic filters into four filtering grades (A, B, C, D). The efficiency taken into consideration in this standard is the average Em efficiency on the grain size of DEHS of 0.4 μm.
A homogeneous comparison with the "mechanical" type filters is not possible, since the efficiency classes of the latter take into consideration:

a) The average filtration efficiencies over the useful life of the filter which is not constant, but grows with the impregnation of dust by the particulate filter with a particle size of 0.4 μm (class F, EN 779).
b) The minimum filtration efficiencies for particulates with a particle size of 0.3 μm (class H, EN 1822).

However, FE filters can be combined with mechanical filters (classes F or H) based on their performance towards the particle size.
The same FE filter offers, in terms of performance, an increasing filtration efficiency with decreasing air passage speed.
At a speed of 4 m / s a ​​FE filter will be comparable to a "mechanical" class F7 filter, while at 1.5 m / s its filtration efficiency will make it comparable to a class H12 filter. Therefore, in a system with a variable flow rate, with an active electrostatic filter, the minimum efficiency class will be that obtained at the maximum flow rate and will grow for lower flow rates. This peculiarity does not exist for mechanical filters that maintain the same efficiency class at the different operating flow rates, although the degree of efficiency is minimum with a new filter.

Choosing an inadequate filter for the air treatment unit will make the performance of the system poor because most of the ultra-fine dust contained in the air passes through the system and enters the circulation. In the long run, this causes the batteries, the fan, the channels to become dirty and a high concentration of ultra-fine powders that are difficult to eliminate in the treated environments.
The choice of a high efficiency filter considerably reduces the effects mentioned above. The high performance of Expansion Electronic's active electrostatic filters towards fine (PM 2.5), ultra-thin (PM 1) and nano (PM 0.4) dusts make it the ideal choice for all those who want to obtain from a ventilation system. a high degree of air hygiene, markedly reduced maintenance costs, significantly reduced energy costs, large storage capacities (600g) and, last but not least, constant air flow and efficiency over time.
Having a high efficiency on the whole spectrum of dust means inducing high air quality especially from a hygiene point of view (bacteria, spores, molds, viruses, etc.), as well as safeguarding the system (batteries of exchange, channels, etc.) with important returns on maintenance costs.

The active electrostatic filter is a high precision filter, composed of noble materials and is not intended for "disposable".
The higher initial cost will be amortized over time (2.5 - 3.5 years) for:

a) lower maintenance costs;
b) lower energy consumption compared to a high quality Indoor air quality.

It can therefore be understood that active electrostatic filters allow a return on investment which must be considered in all respects an important parameter of choice.
0 0 Votes
Antibodies from blood donated by people who recovered from the illness and hyper-immunoglobulins are becoming treatments of choice for COVID-19, with recombinant polyclonal antibody approaches to follow.

A group of US academic researchers has sparked a nationwide effort to encourage people who have recovered from COVID-19 to donate plasma, which will be used to treat patients across the country. The convalescent plasma program was instigated by physicians and investigators from 40 institutions, including the Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins University, Washington University, Einstein Medical Center and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, among many others working closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and industry partners. The UK’s National Health Service launched in April a program across its 23 main blood centers to collect convalescent plasma for testing in planned clinical trials. At the same time, a consortium of industry players — Takeda, CSL Behring, Biotest, Bio Products Laboratory, LFB, Octapharma and Microsoft — has come together to develop an unbranded polyclonal antibody product: hyperimmune globulin (H-Ig) purified from the pooled plasma of donors who have recovered from COVID-19. Elsewhere, convalescent plasma treatment is getting a twenty-first century facelift, with two efforts attempting to capture the entire human antibody repertoire against SARS-CoV-2 in recombinant platforms: a collaboration between SAb Biotherapeutics, CSL Behring and the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) working to introduce artificial chromosomes into cattle to produce human antibodies and an effort by GigaGen to introduce an antibody library against SARS-CoV-2 into a mammalian cell line. The goal is to scale up polyclonal antibody manufacturing to produce treatment cocktails directed against the betacoronavirus causing COVID-19. But, as with every other response to the pandemic, scaling these efforts to the point where they can have a meaningful and immediate impact presents a complex set of problems.
The first reports on the use of convalescent plasma transfusions to treat COVID-19 came from a couple of case series rather than properly controlled trials, but their outcomes were encouraging (Table 1). Five patients at the Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital in Shenzhen, China, were treated with convalescent plasma. Of these, three were discharged and the other two were stable as of 25 March, despite having been in respiratory failure before the transfusion. A second study followed ten patients with severe disease, recruited from three hospitals in Wuhan, China. By data cutoff, three had been discharged and the other seven were ready for discharge. In contrast, among ten matched historical controls with similar baseline characteristics, three died, one improved and six stabilized — meaning their condition neither improved nor worsened. TABLE 1 | SELECTED TRIALS OF CONVALESCENT PLASMA DUE TO COMPLETE THIS YEAR
Lead institutionStudy phaseDescriptionNumber of participantsPrimary endpointStudy completion date
Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (Paris)2Randomized controlled trial of CP versus SOC in patients who receive 2 units of CP as quickly as possible and no later than 10 days after onset of symptoms120Survival without need of ventilation or immune-modulatory drugs at day 1415 May 2020
Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne (Paris)3Placebo-controlled trial of IVIG in COVID-19 patients with ARDS138Number of ventilator-free days up to day 28August 2020
China-Japan Friendship Hospital (Beijing)0Randomized controlled trial comparing CP plus SOC with SOC in patients with COVID-1950Time to clinical recovery after randomization15 August 2020
Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam, the Netherlands)2/3Randomized comparative trial of CP versus SOC in patients with severe disease426Overall mortality1 July 2020
Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Beijing)2/3Randomized open-label study comparing IVIG therapy with SOC80Clinical improvement of 2 points or more on 7-point scale and improvements in Murray lower-lung and lung-injury scores30 June 2020
Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid)2Comparison of CP plus SOC with SOC only in hospitalized patients with early-stage disease278Percentage of patients requiring ventilation, high-flow oxygen or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or dying at day 15July 2020
Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China)N/ARandomized, double-blind controlled study comparing anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus-inactivated plasma with control plasma in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia60Minimum 2-point improvement on 6-point clinical scaleN/A
The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China)N/AExperimental study comparing CP plus SOC with SOC only in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia100Cure rate, mortalityN/A
Universidad del Rosario (Bogotá, Columbia)2/3Open-label study in patients with moderate disease, comparing CP hydroxychloroquine with hydroxychloroquine only80Change in viral load and changes in IgM and IgG antibody titers31 December 2020
Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital (Wuhan, China)N/ARandomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trial of CP in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia100Minimum 2-point improvement on 6-point clinical scaleN/A
ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CP, convalescent plasma; IgM and IgG, immunoglobulin M and G; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; SOC, standard of care; N/A, not available. Sources:;;
Data from additional studies in China and South Korea are slowly starting to flow, but many clinical centers are not waiting for further evidence, given the urgency of the crisis and the lack of proven therapeutic alternatives. “This option rapidly became the best option without really demonstrating that it would work,” says Arturo Casadevall, chair of molecular microbiology and immunology at Johns Hopkins University, who kick-started the US effort to deploy convalescent plasma. “The likelihood of harm is very low relative to the possibility of benefit,” he says.
It is, however, important to understand how best to deploy convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19. “The world is going to be dealing with this for a while longer,” says Casadevall. “We really need to figure out how to use antibody therapies.” So far, the emphasis has understandably been on patients with severe disease who have run out of treatment options. Johns Hopkins is one of the few centers planning to embark on a prospective prevention trial, led by associate professor of medicine Shmuel Shoham, to assess whether convalescent plasma can confer passive immunity on recipients. “Antibodies always work best either prophylactically or early,” says Casadevall. Encouragingly, the initial reports from China suggest the therapy may also work during the later phases of the disease, when acute respiratory distress syndrome is already established. In the Shenzhen study, patients received convalescent plasma between 10 and 22 days after admission, and those in the Wuhan study received it a median of 16.5 days after the onset of symptoms. During the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak, patients who received convalescent plasma within two weeks experienced significantly better outcomes than those who received it after that point.
Further evidence on the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 will flow from the US expanded access program. This large-scale open-label study will use synthetic control groups to compare outcomes between patients who receive convalescent plasma and those who do not. The initiative is scaling rapidly — by 30 April, 2,004 sites had been registered, 7,774 patients had enrolled, and 3,809 of them had undergone transfusion. All participating sites will adhere to a single expanded-access protocol agreed by the US FDA, and the Mayo Clinic will provide a single institutional review board, removing the requirement for each participating site to establish its own board to ensure appropriate standards for treatment and data collection.
One question is whether there will be enough convalescent plasma to go around, particularly in the early months of the pandemic when the ratio of recovered patients to uninfected individuals is low. On the plus side, the ratio between donors and recipients is favorable: patients typically get only one or two units of blood-group-matched convalescent plasma, whereas donors typically donate two to three units. “The geometric math is in your favor on this one,” says Michael Joyner, professor of anesthesiology at the Mayo Clinic and national clinical lead on the program. “There is an amplification effect.” About 70% of the general public are considered eligible to donate blood. Applying the same rule of thumb to the present crisis suggests that 70% of those who recover may be suitable donors, but that represents an upper limit at best.
The FDA’s recently published guidance recommends a minimum neutralizing antibody titer of 1:160 (meaning that a 1-in-160 dilution of a given unit of plasma has activity against the virus); the European Commission’s recent guidance recommends a 1:320 titer. Antibody titers are generally tested with high throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but most sites do not have ELISA-based SARS-CoV-2 testing in place as yet. “Right now, we’re just working under the assumption that it works,” says Joyner. In time, the study will analyze the relationship between clinical outcomes and neutralizing antibody titers present in the donated plasma.
If convalescent plasma can be considered the first leg in a therapeutic relay race, H-Ig is the second. Whereas convalescent plasma requires minimal manipulation — screening for transmissible pathogens and pathogen inactivation are the main processes employed — H-Ig is a standardized pharmaceutical product, made from the purified antibody fraction. As such, it requires full clinical development before approval. “One way of thinking about this is the convalescent plasma is the starting material,” says Julie Kim, president of Takeda’s business unit for plasma-derived therapies. But the end product differs from convalescent plasma in its purity and composition: H-Ig principally contains the immunoglobulin G antibody fraction of the donated plasma, whereas convalescent plasma contains all the blood fluid minus the cellular fraction. H-Ig is, therefore, more concentrated and more potent than convalescent plasma. “It’s consistent, it’s scalable, it’s reliable; it can be shipped around the world,” says Kim. Tokyo-based Takeda and CSL Behring have established the CoVIg-19 Plasma Alliance to accelerate the development of a single, unbranded H-Ig product for COVID-19. They have been joined by four other blood-product firms: Biotest, based in Dreieich, Germany; Bio Products Laboratory, of Elstree, UK; Les Ulis, France-based LFB; and Lachen, Switzerland-based Octapharma. Microsoft is also supporting the initiative and has developed the CoVIg-19 Bot, a self-screening tool for potential donors to assess their eligibility and to locate the nearest plasma collection center.
Other firms are developing additional products, including Barcelona-based Grifols, which will produce a H-Ig product at its facility in Clayton, North Carolina, and Emergent BioSolutions, which is developing both a human H-Ig product, COVID-HIG, and a product based on equine antibodies, developed from the plasma of horses immunized with SARS-CoV-2.
There is, of course, no clean ‘baton exchange’ — to extend the relay metaphor — between convalescent plasma and H-Ig; their use will inevitably overlap, even if they become available at different timescales. “We absolutely believe there is room for both. Convalescent plasma has more immediacy. Ours will take a while to produce,” says Bill Mezzanotte, head of research and development at CSL Behring. Before the formation of the alliance, Takeda had aimed to have H-Ig available in 9–18 months, Kim says. “With the alliance, we hope to beat that.”
Efforts to develop recombinant H-Ig-like products are underway as well. Most advanced is SAb Biotherapeutics, which is collaborating with CSL Behring and BARDA to develop SAB-185, a polyclonal human antibody cocktail obtained from the plasma of transgenic cattle immunized with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The platform, which involves introducing the full complement of human antibody genes on an artificial chromosome, has spent two decades in development. “We ‘bovinized’ portions of the human antibody genes,” SAB CEO and cofounder Eddie Sullivan says. The amino acid sequence of the resulting antibodies are still fully human, but the genes contain bovine regulatory elements that optimize their expression in bovine plasma cells. The company is following a hybrid regulatory pathway originally opened more than a decade ago by Revo Biologics (formerly GTC Biotherapeutics) for the production of Atryn (recombinant human antithrombin) in the milk of transgenic goats. It involves the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) and its Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. “CVM reviews the animal platform; CBER regulates the antibody product itself,” Sullivan says.
SAb has already demonstrated the feasibility of the approach with a different antibody cocktail, SAB-301, directed against the spike protein of another lethal coronavirus, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In a placebo-controlled phase 1 trial in 38 healthy volunteers, SAB-301 demonstrated a placebo-like safety profile and, importantly, those who received the cocktail did not develop an antibody response against any of its components, Sullivan says. The final antibody preparation is highly purified to minimize the presence of any bovine material. When fully up and running, the production process is highly efficient. “We’re hyperimmunizing the animals so we develop very high antibody titers to the virus,” says Sullivan. Fully grown animals — which are all clones of the same genotype — produce up to 45 liters per month and antibody yields of up to 25 grams per liter. “This is a system that is very scalable,” Sullivan says. SAb is producing “a few hundred” animals this year. Once they have grown sufficiently, it will be able to start scaling SAB-185 production, assuming it proves to be safe and effective. SAb expects to start trials by early summer.
GigaGen, which is backed by Grifols, is a more recent arrival, and its cell-based recombinant polyclonal immunoglobulin production system is at an earlier stage of development. It involves capturing on a microfluidics platform the complete B-cell populations of five to ten people who have recovered COVID-19 and mounted a robust immune response to the virus. The associated antibody-encoding genes are then transferred into a mammalian cell line. The resulting polyclonal pool of antibody-producing cells is grown en masse, giving rise to a highly diverse and potent product containing many thousands of polyclonal immunoglobulins. “We’re recreating their entire repertoire,” says GigaGen CEO and cofounder David Johnson. “We don’t make any bet about what the best epitope is — or the best mechanism of action,” he says. “It’s really difficult to know what are the particular factors that led to somebody’s recovery.”
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated GigaGen plans to move into clinical trials, but it needs to start producing batches under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions before it can file an Investigational New Drug application. “Our biggest bottleneck is finding a manufacturing site,” says Johnson. It hopes to secure a slot during the summer and aims to reach the clinic late this year or early next.
For the vast majority of the many thousands of people who have already died from COVID-19 or have endured severe illness that will have long-term consequences, all of these interventions come too late. There is an inevitable lag between the onset of a pandemic and the ability of the clinical community and pharmaceutical and biotech companies to respond. But the global effort to push back SARS-CoV-2 will need to continue for some time to come.
“People need to recognize when the first wave is done, we’ve probably gotten to only about half of the deaths,” Joyner says. Doctors treating patients have little choice but to use the best interventions available at a given time. “In these sort of situations, the enemy of good is better,” he says. But as we move further into the pandemic, the evidence base supporting the clinical utility of those interventions will steadily improve — and so too, one hopes, will the outcomes.
50 1 Votes
Male and female, energies belonging to a single unit that has been divided.
Originally the human being was at the same time man and woman called androgynous.

When the separation of the sexes took place, everyone went their own way but each of us
bears deeply engraved in one's soul, the imprint, the image of the other.
For this reason, when a man or woman, among hundreds and thousands of people, they notice one in particular that approaches him to the image they carry within themselves, they feel happy and strive to be close to that person.
Unfortunately it often happens that after some time they realize that that image does not correspond to theirs at all and therefore they leave to look for another one. And once again they hope to find the other half, the soul mate.
One day this meeting between the two principles will actually take place because the love between them is more powerful than anything else.
In reality, our soul mate is in ourselves and the other is only the pole of ourselves.
The "know thyself" principle is the fusion of the two principles.
It means find the other Pole in yourself and you will become a divinity.
When the two Poles meet, this knowledge takes place primarily in the worlds of Light. It is therefore necessary to learn to love oneself in the right way first, being careful not to do any harm with thoughts, feelings and words since in this way they prepare internally the necessary conditions for the Divine and the Light to dwell in we.
In initiatory science it is said that nothing can be found externally that has not already been found internally. In fact, you can pass without seeing anything of what you encounter externally, if you have not already found it within you.

The more you discover inner beauty the more you will discover it on the physical plane.

This is the way one has to love one another and such love for oneself is something Divine.
Those who do not know how to love each other do not love God and do not love others.
In love, in relationships and therefore in a couple, if this principle is not implemented, harmful mechanisms begin to be established.
When the two people look for each other, very often both think only of taking. In nature, all creatures who know how to give something good are loved and you feel attracted to them, while those who take, after a while, you start to avoid them. Love is our development and the experience of love, as human beings have made it, is often never very clear.
How come some think they can eternally prey on others?

Those who are plundered soon notice it and then abandon those who plundered them.
There are often toxic relationships where the man wants to suck the woman's life, and vice versa.
Example: a man thinks he loves a woman but instead of understanding that something Divine exists in her and undertaking sublime realizations he wants to give vent to his desire by ruining and destroying everything.
This obviously applies to both.
If this happens in a relationship, it is better to separate because they transgress the law of love.
So let's protect ourselves from all those people who want to take and therefore keep our heart by giving it only to the Divine.
We develop the tendency to give.
We distribute our feelings to others.
How then?
Look at the tree: it retains its roots, its trunk, its branches, but distributes its fruits.
So nature conceived things.
We therefore distribute our fruits, that is, thoughts, feelings, words, light, strength but we preserve our heart and our body.

Our happiness depends on a good understanding of love.
When you love someone, thank heaven for experiencing that feeling because they are exceptional conditions to elevate us, have courage, momentum and inspiration to bring back inner and spiritual victories.

Loving is a blessing. That's why you need to protect your love for as long as possible.
5 1 Votes
As millions of people across the country take to the streets and raise their voices in response to the killing of George Floyd and the ongoing problem of unequal justice, many people have reached out asking how we can sustain momentum to bring about real change. Ultimately, it’s going to be up to a new generation of activists to shape strategies that best fit the times. But I believe there are some basic lessons to draw from past efforts that are worth remembering. First, the waves of protests across the country represent a genuine and legitimate frustration over a decades-long failure to reform police practices and the broader criminal justice system in the United States. The overwhelming majority of participants have been peaceful, courageous, responsible, and inspiring. They deserve our respect and support, not condemnation – something that police in cities like Camden and Flint have commendably understood. On the other hand, the small minority of folks who’ve resorted to violence in various forms, whether out of genuine anger or mere opportunism, are putting innocent people at risk, compounding the destruction of neighborhoods that are often already short on services and investment and detracting from the larger cause. I saw an elderly black woman being interviewed today in tears because the only grocery store in her neighborhood had been trashed. If history is any guide, that store may take years to come back. So let’s not excuse violence, or rationalize it, or participate in it. If we want our criminal justice system, and American society at large, to operate on a higher ethical code, then we have to model that code ourselves. Second, I’ve heard some suggest that the recurrent problem of racial bias in our criminal justice system proves that only protests and direct action can bring about change, and that voting and participation in electoral politics is a waste of time. I couldn’t disagree more. The point of protest is to raise public awareness, to put a spotlight on injustice, and to make the powers that be uncomfortable; in fact, throughout American history, it’s often only been in response to protests and civil disobedience that the political system has even paid attention to marginalized communities. But eventually, aspirations have to be translated into specific laws and institutional practices – and in a democracy, that only happens when we elect government officials who are responsive to our demands. Moreover, it’s important for us to understand which levels of government have the biggest impact on our criminal justice system and police practices. When we think about politics, a lot of us focus only on the presidency and the federal government. And yes, we should be fighting to make sure that we have a president, a Congress, a U.S. Justice Department, and a federal judiciary that actually recognize the ongoing, corrosive role that racism plays in our society and want to do something about it. But the elected officials who matter most in reforming police departments and the criminal justice system work at the state and local levels. It’s mayors and county executives that appoint most police chiefs and negotiate collective bargaining agreements with police unions. It’s district attorneys and state’s attorneys that decide whether or not to investigate and ultimately charge those involved in police misconduct. Those are all elected positions. In some places, police review boards with the power to monitor police conduct are elected as well. Unfortunately, voter turnout in these local races is usually pitifully low, especially among young people – which makes no sense given the direct impact these offices have on social justice issues, not to mention the fact that who wins and who loses those seats is often determined by just a few thousand, or even a few hundred, votes. So the bottom line is this: if we want to bring about real change, then the choice isn’t between protest and politics. We have to do both. We have to mobilize to raise awareness, and we have to organize and cast our ballots to make sure that we elect candidates who will act on reform. Finally, the more specific we can make demands for criminal justice and police reform, the harder it will be for elected officials to just offer lip service to the cause and then fall back into business as usual once protests have gone away. The content of that reform agenda will be different for various communities. A big city may need one set of reforms; a rural community may need another. Some agencies will require wholesale rehabilitation; others should make minor improvements. Every law enforcement agency should have clear policies, including an independent body that conducts investigations of alleged misconduct. Tailoring reforms for each community will require local activists and organizations to do their research and educate fellow citizens in their community on what strategies work best. But as a starting point, I’ve included two links below. One leads to a report and toolkit developed by the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights and based on the work of the Task Force on 21st Century Policing that I formed when I was in the White House. And if you’re interested in taking concrete action, we’ve also created a dedicated site at the Obama Foundation to aggregate and direct you to useful resources and organizations who’ve been fighting the good fight at the local and national levels for years. I recognize that these past few months have been hard and dispiriting – that the fear, sorrow, uncertainty, and hardship of a pandemic have been compounded by tragic reminders that prejudice and inequality still shape so much of American life. But watching the heightened activism of young people in recent weeks, of every race and every station, makes me hopeful. If, going forward, we can channel our justifiable anger into peaceful, sustained, and effective action, then this moment can be a real turning point in our nation’s long journey to live up to our highest ideals. Let’s get to work.
Black holes have long been a source of much excitement and intrigue. And interest regarding black holes will surely grow now that gravitational waves have been discovered.
Many of the questions I am asked regard how “true” science fiction concerning black holes might be, and whether worm holes, such as those featured in Stargate, are real or not. Invariably though, the one item that is almost assured to come up are the largely gruesome ways in which black holes might theoretically affect human beings and the Earth itself.

Mass, charge, spin
There are three properties of a black hole that are (in principle) measurable: their mass, their spin (or angular momentum) and their overall electronic charge. Indeed, these are the only three parameters that an outside observer can ever know about since all other information about anything that goes in to making up a black hole is lost. This is known as the “no hair theorem”. Put simply: no matter how hairy or complex an object you throw in to a black hole, it will get reduced down (or shaved) to its mass, charge and spin.
Of these parameters, mass is arguably the most significant. The very definition of a black hole is that it has its mass concentrated in to a vanishingly small volume – the “singularity”. And it is the mass of the black hole – and the huge gravitational forces that its mass generates – which does the “damage” to nearby objects.

Space spaghetti
One of the best known effects of a nearby black hole has the imaginative title of “Spaghettification”. In brief, if you stray too close to a black hole, then you will stretch out, just like spaghetti.
This effect is caused due to a gravitation gradient across your body. Imagine that you are headed feet first towards a black hole. Since your feet are physically closer to the black hole, they will feel a stronger gravitation pull towards it than your head will. Worse than that, your arms, by virtue of the fact that they’re not at the centre of your body, will be attracted in a slightly different (vector) direction than your head is. This will cause parts of the body toward the edges to be brought inwards. The net result is not only an elongation of the body overall, but also a thinning out (or compression) in the middle. Hence, your body or any other object, such as Earth, will start to resemble spaghetti long before it hits the centre of the black hole.
The exact point at which these forces become too much to bear will depend critically on the mass of a black hole. For an “ordinary” black hole that has been produced by the collapse of a high mass star, this could be several hundred kilometres away from the event horizon – the point beyond which no information can escape a black hole. Yet for a supermassive black hole, such as the one thought to reside at the centre of our galaxy, an object could readily sink below the event horizon before becoming spaghetti, at a distance of many tens of thousands of kilometres from its centre. For a distant observer outside the event horizon of the black hole, it would appear that we progressively slow down and then fade away over time.

Bad news for Earth
What would happen, hypothetically, if a black hole appeared out of nowhere next to Earth? The same gravitational effects that produced spaghettification would start to take effect here. The edge of the Earth closest to the black hole would feel a much stronger force than the far side. As such, the doom of the entire planet would be at hand. We would be pulled apart.
Equally, we might not even notice if a truly supermassive black hole swallowed us below its event horizon as everything would appear as it once was, at least for a small period of time. In this case, it could be some time before disaster struck. But don’t lose too much sleep, we’d have to be unfortunate to “hit” a black hole in the first place – and we might live on holographically after the crunch anyway.

Mind the radiation
Interestingly, black holes are not necessarily black. Quasars – objects at the hearts of distant galaxies powered by black holes – are supremely bright. They can readily outshine the rest of their host galaxy combined. Such radiation is generated when the black hole is feasting on new material. To be clear: this material is still outside the event horizon which is why we can still see it. Below the event horizon is where nothing, not even light, can escape. As all the matter piles up from the feast, it will glow. It is this glow that is seen when observers look at quasars.
But this is a problem for anything orbiting (or near) a black hole, as it is very hot indeed. Long before we would be spaghettified, the sheer power of this radiation would fry us.

Life around a black hole
For those who have watched Christopher Nolan’s film Interstellar, the prospect of a planet orbiting around a black hole might be an appealing one. For life to thrive, there needs to be a source of energy or a temperature difference. And a black hole can be that source. There’s a catch, though. The black hole needs to have stopped feasting on any material – or it will be emitting too much radiation to support life on any neighbouring worlds.
What life would look like on such a world (assuming its not too close to get spaghettified, of course) is another matter. The amount of power received by the planet would probably be tiny compared to what Earth receives from the Sun. And the overall environment of such a planet could be equally bizzare. Indeed, in the creation of Interstellar, Kip Thorne was consulted to ensure the accuracy of the depiction of the black hole featured. These factors do not preclude life, it just makes it a tough prospect and very hard to predict what forms it could take.
0 0 Votes
What are the real reasons that brought hundreds of thousands of African irregular migrants to Europe? The results of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) investigation are clear: hundreds of thousands of Africans illegally reached Europe, resorting to criminal organizations and not to be rejected, they lied claiming to be refugees in escape from wars and persecutions.
They land in Europe after crossing the Mediterranean and seek asylum, "so they are not economic emigrants". One of the first recommendations addressed to newcomers by employees of NGOs and cooperatives that assist those who enter Italy illegally seems to be to declare refugees, to beware of saying that you have left the country of origin in search of work or in any case better luck, a statement that would classify them as illegal to repatriate.

Instead, asylum applications start the procedure foreseen by international conventions to ascertain the truthfulness of what has been said and decide whether to give migrants the legal status of refugee that authorizes them to reside in the country in which they have applied for asylum: if it is Italy , guests of a CAS, an extraordinary reception center.

We have been talking about them for a few days: because the landings have quintupled compared to 2019, because there is evidence that Malta rejects them and directs them to Italy, and because of the chat in which magistrates recognized that Matteo Salvini was right when as minister of the interior he opposed their landing, but was still attacked.

Whether they are refugees or emigrants makes a difference because only those who flee from threats to life and freedom admit that they enter a foreign country without documents in order and yet they must be welcomed. So last year the UNDP, the United Nations Development Program, commissioned an investigation to find out what the real reasons were that brought hundreds of thousands of African irregular migrants to Europe. The research results were published in October 2019 in a report entitled "The Scaling Fences: Voices of Irregular African Migrants to Europe". Reading it is useful for the information it contains. The same cannot be said of the conclusions it reaches.

UNDP researchers interviewed 1,970 people in 13 European states, originating in 39 African countries. The answers - explains the UNDP - deny "what is commonly said about irregular emigration from Africa to Europe". In fact, all the interviewees declare that they traveled using irregular channels, in other words relying on men's smuggler organizations, and that they did so not because they were driven by the need to seek asylum. The figure is surprising even for those who know that most of the asylum applications are without foundation and are rejected.

Many emigrants were by no means poor at home and do not have a low level of education, the report continues. That the poor cannot bear the high cost of an illegal travel has long been established. But the UNDP study says more. 9 out of 100 respondents went to school upon departure. 49 out of a hundred had a job. On average, they attended school for at least three years longer than their peers and, although about 50 percent said they did not earn enough, almost all of them received good, above average, wages.

Other interesting information emerges from the interviews. 41 percent of immigrants say nothing would dissuade them from leaving. 93 out of 100 say they took risks during the trip, but only 2 out of 100 say that if they knew what was waiting for them they would have given up on the plan to migrate irregularly. In addition to economic motivations, many add the unease due to unjust and corrupt governments, the sense of powerlessness in the face of political systems that do not create development, which keep people in poverty.

Although not everyone wants to live permanently in Europe, two factors cause them to stay. Among those who have found employment, some send money home: it is less than a third of what they earn, however, they say, equivalent to about 85 percent of what they earned at home. Going home would make this contribution to the family less, given the difficulty of reintegration into economic and social life, especially for those who return without resources. In the case of those who do not have a job, the shame of having failed, of not having implemented the project of sending remittances to families and communities is the main factor that prevents them from returning home. This is especially true for 53 percent of respondents who say they have received some form of financial help from relatives and friends to pay for travel expenses in Europe.

The results of the UNDP investigation are clear. Those who want to stop irregular migrants are right: they confirm that hundreds of thousands of Africans have reached Europe illegally, resorting to criminal organizations, to not be rejected they have lied claiming to be refugees fleeing wars and persecutions. Little considered but equally important fact, some of them find a regular job and it would seem a good thing. But every job so busy goes to the detriment of those who try to emigrate following rules and legal procedures: in Italy, starting from the entry quotas of non-EU workers established every year by the Directorate-General for Immigration and Integration Policies .

This is what the UNDP conclusions should deal with. Instead "the fundamental message that emerges from this study - comments the report - is that emigration is the effect of uneven development and in particular of a development that excludes young people, sends a strong signal to policy makers". The UNDP seems to consider irrelevant what instead constitutes the peculiarity of the phenomenon considered: the fact that young Africans decide to leave their countries clandestinely, headed for a continent, Europe, where it is completely unlikely that they will find a job, while millions of Africans instead emigrate regularly, mostly without leaving their continent, choosing as destination countries where there is a demand for labor.

It is worth highlighting the use of the expression "uneven development" because it refers to the Marxist theories of the 60s of the last century which attribute to the capitalist system, to its exploitation of the "peripheries" of the world, to its "domination" on the planet. cause of underdevelopment and persistent poverty.
0 0 up - 0 down
Mental health screening and surveillance of apps, social media and phones are being used to monitor all behavior and then through computer programming, predict mental disorder and the need for psychiatric or psychological intervention.
0 0 Votes
A close look at fundamental symmetries has exposed hidden patterns in the universe. Physicists think that those same symmetries may also reveal time’s original secret.

In late August 2019, paleontologists reported finding the fossil of a flattened turtle shell that “was possibly trodden on” by a dinosaur, whose footprints spanned the rock layer directly above. The rare discovery of correlated fossils potentially traces two bygone species to the same time and place. “It’s only by doing that that we’re able to reconstruct ancient ecosystems,” one paleontologist toldThe New York Times.
The approach parallels the way cosmologists go about inferring the history of the universe. Like fossils, astronomical objects are not randomly strewn throughout space. Rather, spatial correlations between the positions of objects such as galaxies tell a detailed story of the ancient past. “Paleontologists infer the existence of dinosaurs to give a rational accounting of strange patterns of bones,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a physicist and cosmologist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. “We look at patterns in space today, and we infer a cosmological history in order to explain them.”
One curious pattern cosmologists have known about for decades is that space is filled with correlated pairs of objects: pairs of hot spots seen in telescopes’ maps of the early universe; pairs of galaxies or of galaxy clusters or superclusters in the universe today; pairs found at all distances apart. You can see these “two-point correlations” by moving a ruler all over a map of the sky. When there’s an object at one end, cosmologists find that this ups the chance that an object also lies at the other end.
The simplest explanation for the correlations traces them to pairs of quantum particles that fluctuated into existence as space exponentially expanded at the start of the Big Bang. Pairs of particles that arose early on subsequently moved the farthest apart, yielding pairs of objects far away from each other in the sky today. Particle pairs that arose later separated less and now form closer-together pairs of objects. Like fossils, the pairwise correlations seen throughout the sky encode the passage of time — in this case, the very beginning of time.
Cosmologists believe that rare quantum fluctuations involving three, four or even more particles should also have occurred during the birth of the universe. These presumably would have yielded more complicated configurations of objects in the sky today: triangular arrangements of galaxies, along with quadrilaterals, pentagons and other shapes. Telescopes haven’t yet spotted these statistically subtle “higher-point” correlations, but finding them would help physicists better understand the first moments after the Big Bang.
Yet theorists have found it challenging even to calculate what the signals would look like — until recently. In the past four years, a small group of researchers has approached the question in a new way. They have found that the form of the correlations follows directly from symmetries and other deep mathematical principles. The most important findings to date were detailed in a paper by Arkani-Hamed and three co-authors that took its final form this summer.
The physicists employed a strategy known as the bootstrap, a term derived from the phrase “pick yourself up by your own bootstraps” (instead of pushing off of the ground). The approach infers the laws of nature by considering only the mathematical logic and self-consistency of the laws themselves, instead of building on empirical evidence. Using the bootstrap philosophy, the researchers derived and solved a concise mathematical equation that dictates the possible patterns of correlations in the sky that result from different primordial ingredients.
“They’ve found ways of calculating things that just look totally different from the textbook approaches,” said Tom Hartman, a theoretical physicist at Cornell University who has applied the bootstrap in other contexts.
Eva Silverstein, a theoretical physicist at Stanford University who wasn’t involved in the research, added that the recent paper by Arkani-Hamed and collaborators is “a really beautiful contribution.” Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the work, Silverstein and others said, is what it implies about the nature of time. There’s no “time” variable anywhere in the new bootstrapped equation. Yet it predicts cosmological triangles, rectangles and other shapes of all sizes that tell a sensible story of quantum particles arising and evolving at the beginning of time.
This suggests that the temporal version of the cosmological origin story may be an illusion. Time can be seen as an “emergent” dimension, a kind of hologram springing from the universe’s spatial correlations, which themselves seem to come from basic symmetries. In short, the approach has the potential to help explain why time began, and why it might end. As Arkani-Hamed put it, “The thing that we’
0 0 Votes
We often hear that Britain is a “class-based society”. Ask people what class is and you’ll get a wide range of answers – from accent to cultural tastes – leaving you perplexed as to how it might ever be a useful construct to understand much about the realities of British life. But really it’s all about what job you do.
I study the relationship between a person’s class and their life chances and it has become glaringly apparent during the coronavirus crisis that class – what job you do – has never been more important.
There is a clear class divide in the COVID-19 death rate, with working class jobs such as carers, taxi drivers, security guards and retail assistants clearly worse affected than middle and upper class jobs who can much more easily self-isolate and work from home.
Analysing data released by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) on registered deaths in England and Wales among people aged 20 to 64, up to and including April 20, I find a sharp divide between the fraction of deaths in managerial and professional occupations and routine and manual occupations. While routine and manual occupations account for around 34% of jobs, those working in such jobs account for more than 43% of COVID-19 deaths among those of working age. Conversely, managerial and professional occupations account for 43% of all jobs but 28% of these deaths so far.

Author’s analysis of Office for National Statistics data. England and Wales aged 20 to 64 only. Mark Williams, CC BY-ND
Digging further into the detail makes very tragic reading. The deaths are highly concentrated in occupations that have been working on the frontline: caring and health, delivery workers, drivers and those working in retail. Of the 369 occupations listed by the ONS, just five account for 17% of COVID-19 deaths among those of working age in England and Wales. Just ten occupations account for 27% of these deaths, with 20 accounting for 40% (only 20% of people work in these 20 occupations).
These jobs are also overwhelmingly manual and routine occupations – those carried out by the economically least advantaged. While the class divide in COVID-19 deaths is not wholly out of sync with the divide in non-COVID deaths, these figures are a powerful reminder that what you do quite literally determines your life chances.

Impact of easing lockdown
Workers who cannot work from home can now return to their workplaces. This will clearly affect classes differently. Around 75% of managerial and professional workers will almost certainly carry on working from home because they can. By contrast, a similar proportion of routine and manual workers will most likely be back at their workplaces. According to my analysis of ONS data, these are occupations where less than 10% have ever worked from home.

Author’s analysis of ONS data. England and Wales aged 20 to 64 only. Mark Williams, CC BY-ND
One way to get a handle on the class dimension of the risks of going back to work is by using recent statistics published by the ONS on occupational exposure to infectious diseases and proximity to others at work. The first indicator in the graph below (blue bars) shows those in routine and manual occupations are most likely to be exposed to infectious disease in their job. The second indicator (red bars) shows these workers are also most likely to work in close proximity to others, making social distancing measures more difficult.

Author’s analysis of ONS data. This uses pre-pandemic data and does not reflect changes made since. Mark Williams, CC BY-ND
Combining these two indicators to form an overall risk index (green bars) reinforces the pattern that those workers being told to go back to work are also most vulnerable to infection at work. By contrast, managerial and professional occupations are less at risk – with some notable exceptions, such as those related to health like medical practitioners, nurses and dentists.
What is more, routine and manual jobs are the lowest paid, have the poorest sick pay and other workplace benefits and are the most insecure. But this predates the coronavirus crisis – class inequalities in conditions of employment have been becoming more entrenched over the past four decades.
What COVID-19 does is accelerate the impact of these class differences and throw the issue into stark relief. Reorganising workplaces to enable social distancing will likely be the most challenging and least effective in those jobs being told they can go back to work. They are also most at risk to infection, as well as being the ones needing to go back to work the most to make ends meet. What kind of job you have has never been more important for your life chances.
0 0 Votes
Over the last 50 years, a lot has changed in rocketry. The fuel that powers spaceflight might finally be changing too. To safely explore the solar system and beyond, spaceships need to go faster – nuclear-powered rockets may be the answer.

With dreams of Mars on the minds of both NASA and Elon Musk, long-distance crewed missions through space are coming. But you might be surprised to learn that modern rockets don’t go all that much faster than the rockets of the past.
There are a lot of reasons that a faster spaceship is a better one, and nuclear-powered rockets are a way to do this. They offer many benefits over traditional fuel-burning rockets or modern solar-powered electric rockets, but there have been only eight U.S. space launches carrying nuclear reactors in the last 40 years.
However, last year the laws regulating nuclear space flights changed and work has already begun on this next generation of rockets.

Why the need for speed?
The first step of a space journey involves the use of launch rockets to get a ship into orbit. These are the large fuel-burning engines people imagine when they think of rocket launches and are not likely to go away in the foreseeable future due to the constraints of gravity.
It is once a ship reaches space that things get interesting. To escape Earth’s gravity and reach deep space destinations, ships need additional acceleration. This is where nuclear systems come into play. If astronauts want to explore anything farther than the Moon and perhaps Mars, they are going to need to be going very very fast. Space is massive, and everything is far away.
There are two reasons faster rockets are better for long-distance space travel: safety and time.
Astronauts on a trip to Mars would be exposed to very high levels of radiation which can cause serious long-term health problems such as cancer and sterility. Radiation shielding can help, but it is extremely heavy, and the longer the mission, the more shielding is needed. A better way to reduce radiation exposure is to simply get where you are going quicker.
But human safety isn’t the only benefit. As space agencies probe farther out into space, it is important to get data from unmanned missions as soon as possible. It took Voyager-2 12 years just to reach Neptune, where it snapped some incredible photos as it flew by. If Voyager-2 had a faster propulsion system, astronomers could have had those photos and the information they contained years earlier.
Speed is good. But why are nuclear systems faster?

Systems of today
Once a ship has escaped Earth’s gravity, there are three important aspects to consider when comparing any propulsion system:
  • Thrust – how fast a system can accelerate a ship
  • Mass efficiency – how much thrust a system can produce for a given amount of fuel
  • Energy density – how much energy a given amount of fuel can produce
Today, the most common propulsion systems in use are chemical propulsion – that is, regular fuel-burning rockets – and solar-powered electric propulsion systems.
Chemical propulsion systems provide a lot of thrust, but chemical rockets aren’t particularly efficient, and rocket fuel isn’t that energy-dense. The Saturn V rocket that took astronauts to the Moon produced 35 million Newtons of force at liftoff and carried 950,000 gallons of fuel. While most of the fuel was used in getting the rocket into orbit, the limitations are apparent: It takes a lot of heavy fuel to get anywhere.
Electric propulsion systems generate thrust using electricity produced from solar panels. The most common way to do this is to use an electrical field to accelerate ions, such as in the Hall thruster. These devices are commonly used to power satellites and can have more than five times higher mass efficiency than chemical systems. But they produce much less thrust – about three Newtons, or only enough to accelerate a car from 0-60 mph in about two and a half hours. The energy source – the Sun – is essentially infinite but becomes less useful the farther away from the Sun the ship gets.
One of the reasons nuclear-powered rockets are promising is because they offer incredible energy density. The uranium fuel used in nuclear reactors has an energy density that is 4 million times higher than hydrazine, a typical chemical rocket propellant. It is much easier to get a small amount of uranium to space than hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel.
So what about thrust and mass efficiency?

Two options for nuclear
Engineers have designed two main types of nuclear systems for space travel.
The first is called nuclear thermal propulsion. These systems are very powerful and moderately efficient. They use a small nuclear fission reactor – similar to those found in nuclear submarines – to heat a gas, such as hydrogen, and that gas is then accelerated through a rocket nozzle to provide thrust. Engineers from NASA estimate that a mission to Mars powered by nuclear thermal propulsion would be 20%-25% shorter than a trip on a chemical-powered rocket.
Nuclear thermal propulsion systems are more than twice as efficient as chemical propulsion systems – meaning they generate twice as much thrust using the same amount of propellant mass – and can deliver 100,000 Newtons of thrust. That’s enough force to get a car from 0-60 mph in about a quarter of a second.
The second nuclear-based rocket system is called nuclear electric propulsion. No nuclear electric systems have been built yet, but the idea is to use a high-power fission reactor to generate electricity that would then power an electrical propulsion system like a Hall thruster. This would be very efficient, about three times better than a nuclear thermal propulsion system. Since the nuclear reactor could create a lot of power, many individual electric thrusters could be operated simultaneously to generate a good amount of thrust.
Nuclear electric systems would be the best choice for extremely long-range missions because they don’t require solar energy, have very high efficiency and can give relatively high thrust. But while nuclear electric rockets are extremely promising, there are still a lot of technical problems to solve before they are put into use.

Why aren’t there nuclear powered rockets yet?
Nuclear thermal propulsion systems have been studied since the 1960s but have not yet flown in space.
Regulations first imposed in the U.S. in the 1970s essentially required case-by-case examination and approval of any nuclear space project from multiple government agencies and explicit approval from the president. Along with a lack of funding for nuclear rocket system research, this environment prevented further improvement of nuclear reactors for use in space.
That all changed when the Trump administration issued a presidential memorandum in August 2019. While upholding the need to keep nuclear launches as safe as possible, the new directive allows for nuclear missions with lower amounts of nuclear material to skip the multi-agency approval process. Only the sponsoring agency, like NASA, for example, needs to certify that the mission meets safety recommendations. Larger nuclear missions would go through the same process as before.
Along with this revision of regulations, NASA received US$100 million in the 2019 budget to develop nuclear thermal propulsion. DARPA is also developing a space nuclear thermal propulsion system to enable national security operations beyond Earth orbit.
After 60 years of stagnation, it’s possible a nuclear-powered rocket will be heading to space within a decade. This exciting achievement will usher in a new era of space exploration. People will go to Mars and science experiments will make new discoveries all across our solar system and beyond.
0 0 Votes
Stubborn problems with dark matter, dark energy, and cosmic expansion have some astronomers rethinking what we know about the early universe.

A series of powerful observations has made it clear that our universe has expanded for billions of years, emerging from the hot, dense state we call the Big Bang. Over the past several decades, new types of precise measurements have allowed scientists to scrutinize and refine this account, letting them reconstruct the history of our universe in ever greater detail. When we compare the results from different kinds of measurements — the expansion rate of the universe, the temperature patterns in the light released when the first atoms formed, the abundances of various chemical elements, and the distribution of galaxies and other large-scale structures — we find stunning agreement. Each of these lines of evidence supports the conclusion that our universe expanded and evolved in just the way that the Big Bang theory predicts. From this perspective, our universe appears to be remarkably comprehensible.
But cosmologists have struggled — if not outright failed — to understand essential facets of the universe. We know almost nothing about dark matter and dark energy, which together make up more than 95 percent of the total energy in existence today. We don’t understand how the universe’s protons, electrons, and neutrons could have survived the aftereffects of the Big Bang. In fact, everything we know about the laws of physics tells us that these particles should have been destroyed by antimatter long ago. And in order to make sense of the universe as we observe it, cosmologists have been forced to conclude that space, during its earliest moments, must have undergone a brief and spectacular period of hyperfast expansion — an event known as cosmic inflation. Yet we know next to nothing about this key era of cosmic history.
It’s possible that these puzzles are little more than loose ends, each of which will be resolved as cosmologists continue to investigate our universe. But so far, these problems have proven to be remarkably stubborn and persistent. With the goal of identifying the individual particles that make up dark matter, scientists have designed and built a series of impressive experiments — yet no such particles have appeared. Even powerful particle accelerators like the Large Hadron Collider have revealed nothing that moves us closer to resolving any of these cosmic mysteries. And despite having measured the expansion history and large-scale structure of the universe in ever increasing detail, we have not gained any substantively greater understanding of the nature of dark energy, the force that seems to be accelerating the expansion of the cosmos.
It is from this perspective that some cosmologists have found themselves asking whether these cosmic mysteries might be symptoms of something more significant than a few loose threads. Perhaps these puzzles are not as unrelated as they might seem, but are instead collectively pointing us toward a very different picture of our universe and its earliest moments. What we’ve learned by not discovering dark matter Dark matter is likely the most celebrated problem facing modern cosmologists. Astronomers have determined that most of the matter in our universe does not consist of atoms or any other known substances, but of something else — something that does not appreciably radiate, reflect, or absorb light.
Despite not knowing much about the nature of dark matter, cosmologists often speculate about the kinds of particles that might make up this substance. In particular, researchers have long recognized that if dark matter particles interact through a force that is approximately as powerful as the weak nuclear force (which governs radioactive decay), then the number of these particles that should have emerged from the Big Bang would roughly match the measured abundance of dark matter found in the universe today. With this in mind, weakly interacting massive particles — WIMPs — became the best guess for dark matter’s nature.
MPs was that scientists thought they knew how to detect the particles and study their properties. Motivated by this goal, physicists engaged in an ambitious experimental program to identify these WIMPs and learn how they were forged in the Big Bang. Over the past couple of decades, researchers have deployed a succession of increasingly sensitive dark matter detectors in deep-underground laboratories that are capable of detecting individual collisions between a dark matter particle and the atoms that make up the target.
These sophisticated experiments performed beautifully — as well as or better than designed. Yet no such collisions have been observed. A decade ago, many scientists were optimistic that these experiments would bear fruit. But dark matter has turned out to be very different, and far more elusive, than we had once imagined.
Although it’s still possible that dark matter could consist of some form of difficult-to-detect WIMPs, the lack of any signal from underground experiments has led many physicists to shift their focus toward other dark matter candidates. One such contender is a hypothetical ultralight particle known as an axion. Axions are predicted according to a theory proposed by particle physicists Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn in 1977. Although scientists are searching for axions in experiments that use powerful magnetic fields to convert them into photons, these investigations have yet to place very strict constraints on the properties of these particles.
Another possibility that could explain why dark matter has been so difficult to detect is that the first moments of the universe may have played out much differently than cosmologists have long imagined. Take the case of the conventional WIMP. Calculations show that the fledgling universe should have produced vast quantities of these particles during the first millionth of a second or so after the Big Bang, when they reached a state of equilibrium with the surrounding plasma of quarks, gluons, and other subatomic particles. The number of WIMPs that could have survived these conditions — and ultimately contributed to the dark matter found throughout today’s universe — depends on how, and how often, they interacted. But when carrying out calculations such as these, scientists generally assume that space expanded steadily during the first fraction of a second, without any unexpected events or transitions. It is entirely plausible that this simply was not the case.
Although cosmologists know a great deal about how our universe expanded and evolved over most of its history, they know relatively little about the first seconds that followed the Big Bang — and next to nothing about the first trillionth of a second. When it comes to how our universe may have evolved, or to the events that may have taken place during these earliest moments, we have essentially no direct observations on which to rely. This era is hidden from view, buried beneath impenetrable layers of energy, distance, and time.
Our understanding of this period of cosmic history is, in many respects, little more than an informed guess based on inference and extrapolation. Look far enough back in time, and almost everything we know about our universe could have been different. Matter and energy existed in different forms than they do today, and they may have experienced forces that have not yet been discovered. Key events and transitions may have taken place that science has yet to illuminate. Matter likely interacted in ways that it no longer does, and space and time themselves may have behaved differently than they do in the world we know.
With this in mind, many cosmologists have begun to consider the possibility that our failure to detect the particles that make up dark matter might be telling us not only about the nature of dark matter itself, but also about the era in which it was created. By studying dark matter, scientists are learning about the first moments after the Big Bang.

How fast is space expanding? In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distances. This provided the first clear evidence that our universe is expanding. Ever since, the current rate of this expansion — the Hubble constant — has been one of the key properties of our universe that cosmologists study.
It’s fair to say that the Hubble constant has long been difficult to measure. Hubble’s original determination was plagued with systematic errors that led him to overestimate the expansion rate by a factor of 7. As recently as the 1990s, textbooks often quoted values ranging from as low as 50 to as high as 100 kilometers per second for every million parsecs separating two points in space — usually written as 50 to 100 km/s/Mpc. (One megaparsec [Mpc] equals 3.26 million light-years.) Although the precision of these measurements has improved considerably over the past two decades, no consensus yet exists regarding the correct value for this quantity. In fact, as these measurements have improved, the results from different methods seem to disagree with one another even more.
One way to determine the Hubble constant is to directly measure how fast objects are moving away from us, just as Hubble did in 1929. For his measurements, Hubble used a special class of pulsating stars known as Cepheid variables, whose intrinsic luminosities track nicely with the periods over which they brighten and fade. Modern cosmologists continue to use Cepheids for this purpose, but they also employ other classes of objects, including type Ia supernovae — exploding white dwarfs that all have the same approximate luminosity. When researchers combine the latest data, they find that the universe is currently expanding at a rate of about 72 to 76 km/s/Mpc.
But that’s not the end of the story. Cosmologists also can infer the value of the Hubble constant by studying the primordial light released when the first atoms formed some 380,000 years after the Big Bang. The detailed temperature patterns of this light — known as the cosmic microwave background — serve as a map that shows how matter was distributed throughout the universe at that time.
When scrutinized, this map reveals many details about our young universe, including how much matter and other forms of energy were present, as well as how fast space was expanding. It also tells us that the Hubble constant is about 67 km/s/Mpc — a significantly smaller value than cosmologists have found through more direct measurements.
What does this mismatch mean for our universe? Assuming that these studies have correctly accounted for all the systematic uncertainties inherent in the observations, these two ways of determining the Hubble constant appear to be incompatible — at least within the context of the standard cosmological model. To make these discrepant results mutually consistent, astronomers would be forced to change how we think the cosmos expanded and evolved, or to reconsider the forms of matter and energy in the universe during the first few hundred thousand years following the Big Bang.
According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the rate at which space expands depends on the density of matter and other forms of energy it contains. When cosmologists infer the value of the Hubble constant from the cosmic microwave background, they have to make assumptions about the amounts of dark matter, neutrinos, and other substances that were present.
Perhaps the simplest way to explain the tension between the different measurements of the Hubble constant would be to hypothesize that the cosmos contained more energy than expected during the first hundred thousand years or so following the Big Bang. This energy might have taken the form of an exotic species of light and feebly interacting particles, or of some kind of dark energy associated with the vacuum of space itself that has long since disappeared from the universe. Or perhaps there is something else we don’t understand about this era of cosmic history. We simply do not yet know how to resolve this intriguing mystery. Is a revolution coming? As I said earlier, it’s possible that the various puzzles cosmologists face today are little more than a few trivial threads that scientists will tie up nicely in the years ahead with the help of new experiments and observations. But lately, it seems the more we study the universe, the less we understand it. Despite decades of effort, the nature of dark matter remains unknown, and the problem of dark energy seems nearly intractable. We do not know how the particles that make up the atoms in our universe managed to survive the first moments of the Big Bang, and we still know little about cosmic inflation, how it played out, or how it came to an end — assuming that something like inflation happened at all.
It is from this perspective that I sometimes find myself considering whether these mysteries might represent something greater than a few open and unrelated questions. Perhaps they are telling us that the earliest moments of our universe were far different from what we long imagined them to be. Perhaps these problems represent the beginning of a revolution for the science of cosmology.
Sometimes I wonder whether we might be on a significant precipice of scientific history, similar to what we experienced in 1904. At that time, physics had never before seemed to be on such solid footing. For more than two centuries, the principles of Newtonian physics had been applied successfully to problem after problem. And although physicists expanded their knowledge into areas such as electricity, magnetism, and heat, these aspects of the world were really not so different from those Newton had described hundreds of years earlier. To the physicists of 1904, the world seemed well understood. There was little reason to expect a revolution.
Similar to the situation cosmologists confront today, however, the physicists of 1904 had not yet been able to address a few challenges. The medium through which they believed light traveled — the luminiferous ether — should have induced variations in the speed of light, and yet light always moves through space at the same rate. Astronomers observed the orbit of Mercury to be slightly different from what Newtonian physics predicted, leading some to suggest that an unknown planet, dubbed Vulcan, might be perturbing Mercury’s trajectory.
Physicists in 1904 had no idea what powered the Sun — no known chemical or mechanical process could possibly generate so much energy over such a long time. Lastly, scientists knew various chemical elements emitted and absorbed light with specific patterns, none of which physicists had the slightest idea how to explain. In other words, the inner workings of the atom remained a total and utter mystery.
Although few saw it coming, in hindsight, it’s clear that these problems were heralds of a revolution in physics. And in 1905, the revolution arrived, ushered in by a young Albert Einstein and his new theory of relativity. We now know that the luminiferous ether does not exist and that there is no planet Vulcan. Instead, these fictions were symptoms of the underlying failure of Newtonian physics. Relativity beautifully solved and explained each of these mysteries without any need for new substances or planets.
Furthermore, when scientists combined relativity with the new theory of quantum physics, it became possible to explain the Sun’s longevity, as well as the inner workings of atoms. These new theories even opened doors to new and previously unimagined lines of inquiry, including that of cosmology itself.
Scientific revolutions can profoundly transform how we see and understand our world. But radical change is never easy to see coming. There is probably no way to tell whether the mysteries faced by cosmologists today are the signs of an imminent scientific revolution or merely the last few loose ends of an incredibly successful scientific endeavor.
There is no question that we have made incredible progress in understanding our universe, its history, and its origin. But it is also undeniable that we are profoundly puzzled, especially when it comes to the earliest moments of cosmic history. I have no doubt that these moments hold incredible secrets, and perhaps the keys to a new scientific revolution. But our universe holds its secrets closely. It is up to us to coax those secrets from its grip, transforming them from mystery into discovery.
0 0 Votes
This May 14, 2020, the faithful of different religious traditions have been invited to prayer and fasting for the end of the pandemic.
Interview with Msgr. Yoannis Lahzi Gaid, Secretary of Pope Francis and member of the High Committee for Human Fraternity, created after the historic Abu Dhabi meeting between the Holy Father and the Grand Imam Al-Tayyeb

Msgr. Yoannis Lahzi Gaid, how did this idea of a day of joint prayer and fasting on May 14, for Christians and Muslims, come about?
The idea arose within the High Committee for Human Fraternity during its last meeting, which took place on March 31, 2020 in a video conference due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The initiative was born from the question: how can we give shared witness before a shared danger? The answer was "praying together as brothers and sisters".

How is the High Committee progressing one year on from the Abu Dhabi meeting and what are your future plans?
The High Committee continues with enthusiasm and great good will to carry out its mission, that is to strengthen fraternity and to spread the values mentioned in the Document on Human Fraternity, through concrete initiatives, such as, for example, the invitation to prayer, fasting and charity works scheduled for May 14, as well as the promotion of the "Human Fraternity" award which will be given each year to personalities recognized as promoters of fraternity, and also the construction of the "House of Abraham" in Abu Dhabi to realize the value of fraternity and respect for divergences and differences. Faith in God must unite and not divide or even justify violence.
The Document on Human Fraternity is prophetic in affirming universal fraternity. In fact, Coronavirus has not differentiated between rich and poor, between West and East, between developed and developing countries... we are the same, we are brothers and sisters in danger and with a common struggle.

Some would speak of syncretism and give way to polemics when it comes to prayer with an interreligious dimension. Why is it not syncretism and how can we help make this aspect better understood?
Prayer is a universal value inherent in man in every age and time. This is a fact. Inviting everyone to pray together, each according to his or her own faith and belief, does not syncretize but reinforces the value of prayer and fraternity. As a priest and as a Christian who recites the prayer that Christ taught his disciples every day, the "Our Father", I can see in this invitation only the hand of God that unites all the siblings and children in an act of prayer. This does not weaken my faith in Christ, the only Saviour of the World, but strengthens it, knowing that only God can transform evil into good, a pandemic into an occasion of fraternity, a prayer into a power. We cannot forget that God brings his rain down on the good and the bad, makes His sun rise on it all. And precisely for this purpose, Pope Saint John Paul II held an international peace meeting in Assisi in 1986 where the participants each prayed according to their faith.
The initiative therefore wishes to unite all men and women to call for the end of the Coronavirus. It would be the first time that all humankind unites for a single goal: to pray together, each according to their own faith, thus proving that faith unites and does not divide.
Covid-19 has brought us all to our knees but being on our knees is the best position to pray. The virus made us understand our fragility and the need to unite as brothers. We cannot emerge from this separately: either united, together or nobody.

In your personal experience, in Egypt, your country, what can you say about the role of Our Lady in Islamic-Christian spiritual friendship?
The figure of the Virgin Mary is fundamental in interreligious dialogue with Muslims who venerate and respect her. In Egypt many Muslims go to pray at Marian shrines and some even make vows to her. Both the figure of the Virgin and the Document on Fraternity can represent "common points". It is always better to start the dialogue from what unites us and not from what divides us. This never means failing in our duty to proclaim the Truth of the Gospel and of our faith, but to do it with charity, with respect and with humility. Determination never means presumption. Christ who commands us to bring the Gospel to the whole world also asks us to love and pray for everyone, that is, not to fall into the trap of the Pharisees: to believe that we possess the keys to the Kingdom of God, without entering and without letting others enter. Adversity does not bring Christ to others, on the contrary, it hinders the proclamation of the Gospel and deforms the beauty of our faith.
0 0 Votes
In the spring of 2015, through my research in the 216-digits project, I became interested in verifying how number theory was useful in revealing secrets in astronomy.

I therefore verified my intuition that a terrestrial year expressed in days was related to the prime numbers, to the metaphysical value 666 and to phi, the golden number underlying many proportions in nature, the approximate value of which is 1.61803398875.

My guess was that the average of the difference in the value of 666 minus each prime number less than 666, including 1, differed from the number of days in an earth year by the value of ϕ.

Here is the verification through the following table, in which:
  • The first column represents the list of prime numbers lower than 666, including the value 1;
  • The second column represents the differences between 666 and the list of prime numbers including 1.
  • The third column is the calculation of the average of the differences between 666 and each prime number, including 1, in their sequence.
  • The fourth column represents the difference between the exact days 365,2421875 that make up an earth year and the averages of the third column.
  • The fifth column represents the difference between the approximate 365.25 days that make up an earth year and the averages of the third column.
  • The last two columns represent the difference between the Phi value and the results of the two previous columns respectively.
Prime p666 - pAverage (666-p)365,2421875 - Av365,25 - AvPhi-(365,242-Av)Phi-(365,25-Av)

It can be seen that the final result oscillates between the value of 0.00699403 in excess and 0.00081847 in default.
So it can be seen with good approximation that: “the average of 666 minus all prime numbers less than 666, including 1 differ from the days that make up a terrestrial year of the value of ϕ”.

The following questions arise spontaneously:
  • Is the duration of an Earth's orbit around the sun constant, is it increasing or decreasing?
  • Is the mathematical relationship just verified a case that concerns only our Earth or could it also concern the other exoplanets in which there is life?
3.5 2 Votes
In ensuring the safest, most sanitized space for your guests—the most protected from the New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)—ions are your best friend. So says Steve Levine and Tony Abate from AtmosAir Solutions. Their company’s technology has been proven to eliminate the Coronavirus, other viruses, bacteria, fungi and allergens. Levine is President & CEO of the Fairfield, Conn.-based company and Abate is Chief Technology Officer.
At the core of AtmosAir systems is Bi Polar Ionization technology. Within an HVAC system or as a standalone unit, ionization tubes are placed. As airflow passes through the tubes, Bi Polar—positive and negative—ions are created that persist for up to 300 seconds. In the case of a virus such as the Coronavirus, the ions destroy the virus surface structure on a molecular level. As a result, the virus cannot infect, even if it enters the body. The ions also bond to dust and mold particles, break down germs and odors at their source, and break down toxic gasses.
There are three primary ways for the Coronavirus to spread—through person to person contact, by touching a surface that has the virus, and by breathing in microscopic droplets expelled by someone with the virus.
“The ions that we produce pack the occupied space,” Abate says. “They saturate the space and go anywhere the conditioned air will go. “Our system can continuously disinfect the air and surfaces. The system offers another layer of protection against the droplets.”

‘Active’ Form of Air Purification
Unlike a passive system that draws air in and then “filters” it, AtmosAir technology creates the ions once the air flows through the system. “It is an active form of air purification,” Abate says.
Ionization is nature’s air cleaning process. Whereas, unique environmental conditions contribute to ion concentration in excess of 5,000 ions/cm3 near waterfalls and high mountains, ion levels can be as low as 75 ions/cm3 in some indoor locations. Bi Polar Ionization restores ion levels.
Because AtmosAir removes contaminants from the air, less makeup air is needed in a space—up to 50 percent less. According to Levine, HVAC system size can be reduced by 15 percent and energy consumption can be reduced by 30 percent. “If designed into a project at the outset, your HVAC system does not need to be quite as big,” Levine says. The life of HVAC equipment and filters can also be extended.
When asked what advances have been made to his company’s systems since the company was founded in 2007, Levine said, “Now we have incorporated sensors into the technology so you can measure the air quality on a real-time basis. We have also advanced the tubes so that they last 2 years—18,000 hours.” AtmosAware sensors measure different environmental conditions such as TVOC (total volatile organic compound), ozone, and relative humidity. The AtmosSmart logic-based controller interprets the data and automatically adjusts ion intensity to ensure optimal levels and air cleaning performance are maintained, 24/7.
An AtmosAir system is scalable, Levine adds—from a PTAC to a central air system. “We just did 140 hotel rooms in Tulsa. They are integrated into every hotel room in the fan coil unit.”
In addition to the direct physical public health, cost and energy savings benefits, bipolar ionization can be part of a wellness program. Levine says all of Hilton’s Five Feet to Fitness rooms will have AtmosAir purification. Some hotels are marketing rooms with AtmosAir systems as allergy and asthma proofed. In general, enhanced air quality has been proven to result in improved worker productivity, less sickness, and less missed work time.
0 0 Votes
#TitleAuthorDescriptionCampaignSubmission DateState
20458The evolutionary history of Homo Sapiens is related to the number 216, the golden number and the system earth-sun 3 Max Nardotto

By human evolution, anthropogenesis or homination we mean the process of origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a distinct species and its diffusion on Earth.
It is an interdisciplinary subject, ...

The Nature of Time!01/09/2020Discussion
20457Collapse: the only realistic scenario? 1 Arthur Keller

For years, the ecological footprint of humanity and its activities has exceeded the biocapacity of the Earth, which in the current period (2019-2020) is causing the global collapse of our ... read more >>

Mother Nature!19/08/2020Discussion
20456Russia approves 'Sputnik V' COVID-19 vaccine with little human testing 1 Nicoletta Lanese

Russia just approved a coronavirus vaccine for use in tens of thousands of people, though it has not been thoroughly tested for effectiveness, according to news reports.
Russia named the newly ...

Defeat the Coronavirus!14/08/2020Discussion
20455Coronavirus: the political use of fear, what is really going on 1 Antonio Socci

The pandemic is an immense disaster for all peoples. But has there been (and is there) a political use of fear by certain ruling elites? And for what purposes? Are those who believe that a gigantic ... read more >>

A New Dawn in Politics!13/08/2020Discussion
20454Coronavirus: pubertal deniers 2 Massimo Recalcati

No-Covid denier marches follow one another in different regions of the world as the epidemic continues to sow disease and death. The appeal to freedom trampled on by biopower resounds like a mantra ... read more >>

A New Dawn in Politics!12/08/2020Discussion
20453The Imaginary Nature of Time 1 Antonio Manzalini

Nature seems to operate not only in real time, which we all know well, but also in imaginary time. The term imaginary refers to the mathematical concept (formulated for the first time at the end of ... read more >>

The Nature of Time!10/06/2020Discussion
20452Active Electrostatic Filters 1 Expansion Electronic Srl

The Hi-Tech filtering solution for ventilation systems.

With increasing air pollution, the demand for better air filtration is increasing, just as we try to contain the energy ... read more >>

Indoor Environmental Quality!08/06/2020Discussion
20451Convalescent serum lines up as first-choice treatment for coronavirus 1 Cormac Sheridan

Antibodies from blood donated by people who recovered from the illness and hyper-immunoglobulins are becoming treatments of choice for COVID-19, with recombinant polyclonal antibody approaches to ... read more >>

Defeat the Coronavirus!08/06/2020Evaluation Jury
20450Love and soul mate 2 Sabrina Esposito

Male and female, energies belonging to a single unit that has been divided.
Originally the human being was at the same time man and woman called androgynous.

When the separation of the sexes took ... read more >>

Evolutionary Love!06/06/2020Discussion
20449The ongoing problem of unequal justice 1 Barack Obama

As millions of people across the country take to the streets and raise their voices in response to the killing of George Floyd and the ongoing problem of unequal justice, many people have reached out ... read more >>

We Have a Dream!01/06/2020Evaluation Jury
20448What would happen if Earth fell into a black hole? 1 Kevin Pimbblet

Black holes have long been a source of much excitement and intrigue. And interest regarding black holes will surely grow now that gravitational waves have been discovered.
Many of the questions I am ...

The Understanding of the Universe!31/05/2020Discussion
20447The study that gives reason to those who want to stop migrants 1 Anna Bono

What are the real reasons that brought hundreds of thousands of African irregular migrants to Europe? The results of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) investigation are clear: hundreds of ... read more >>

Migration Challenge!25/05/2020Discussion
20446The Brave New World of Artificial Intelligence in Mental Health 1 CCHR

Mental health screening and surveillance of apps, social media and phones are being used to monitor all behavior and then through computer programming, predict mental disorder and the need for ... read more >>

Improve Mental Health!25/05/2020Discussion
20445Cosmic Triangles Open a Window to the Origin of Time 2 Natalie Wolchover

A close look at fundamental symmetries has exposed hidden patterns in the universe. Physicists think that those same symmetries may also reveal time’s original secret.

In late August 2019, ...

The Nature of Time!25/05/2020Discussion
20444Coronavirus class divide – the jobs most at risk of contracting and dying from COVID-19 1 Mark Williams

We often hear that Britain is a “class-based society”. Ask people what class is and you’ll get a wide range of answers – from accent to cultural tastes – leaving you perplexed as to how it ... read more >>

Defeat the Coronavirus!24/05/2020Discussion
20443Nuclear-powered rockets to safely explore the solar system and beyond 1 Iain Boyd

Over the last 50 years, a lot has changed in rocketry. The fuel that powers spaceflight might finally be changing too. To safely explore the solar system and beyond, spaceships need to go faster ... read more >>

Breakthrough Technologies!22/05/2020Discussion
20442Is the Big Bang in crisis? 1 Dan Hooper

Stubborn problems with dark matter, dark energy, and cosmic expansion have some astronomers rethinking what we know about the early universe.

A series of powerful observations has made it clear that ... read more >>

The Understanding of the Universe!16/05/2020Discussion
20441All humanity united in prayer 1 François Vayne

This May 14, 2020, the faithful of different religious traditions have been invited to prayer and fasting for the end of the pandemic.
Interview with Msgr. Yoannis Lahzi Gaid, Secretary of Pope ... read more >>

The Evolution of Religions!16/05/2020Discussion
20440The relationship between the days of an earth year, the prime numbers, the value 666 and ϕ may not be random 3 Max Nardotto

In the spring of 2015, through my research in the 216-digits project, I became interested in verifying how number theory was useful in revealing secrets in astronomy.

I therefore verified my ...

The Nature of Time!12/05/2020Discussion
20439Put Positive, Negative Ions to Work Against Coronavirus 1 Glenn Hasek

In ensuring the safest, most sanitized space for your guests—the most protected from the New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)—ions are your best friend. So says Steve Levine and Tony Abate from AtmosAir ... read more >>

Indoor Environmental Quality!12/05/2020Discussion

Incompatible Browser

Supported browsers are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, IE 11+, Opera, and Safari.