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We all remember the thesis that distinguished phase one from phase two. It was an optimistic thesis inspired by the ideal of an exit from the Covid trauma in the form of a linear progression. The transition from the cruelest time of the epidemic and forced confinement, of closure, of illness and death (phase one) to that of the resumption of life, reopening, restart (phase two) should have taken place without too many aftermaths.
The pre-summer course of the epidemic confirmed this expectation. Time two had supplanted time one that only a few incurable hooligans insisted on remembering. The Italian summer had ratified the extinction of the virus; with the numbers of the epidemic almost zero, life had started to live again and everything had returned to the way it was before. But many knew that it would not be so simple because always when death and illness are involved, when one has experienced such a terrible trauma, it is not easy to leave again.
There is no phase one followed by phase two as its direct negation. Phase one and phase two are never in a simple thesis and antithesis relationship. It is a lesson of life that Covid does not have the exclusive right to. We should always be wary of the Manichean character of rigid antitheses which tends to place good, light, openness, health, life on the one hand and evil, darkness, closure, illness, death. A democratic mind, as Bollas would say, does not work by antithesis, it does not work by splits. It knows well that the pure juxtaposition of opposites would like to avoid the difficulty that always accompanies any process of integration.
The second wave in which we objectively find ourselves today confirms in the most drastic way possible that it is never appropriate to proceed by rigid divisions.
Doctors themselves experienced it dramatically in the initial time of the pandemic: the rescuers were also the first victims. The second wave shows that every time of exit from evil and from the crisis is never without rests, without rebounds, which can sometimes be even more insidious than the evil and the original crisis.
We cannot hide it from ourselves: the task that awaits us is the inevitable one of forced coexistence with the virus.
But for many it is extremely difficult to accept the return of evil, its non-extinction. The most immediate push is to continue, against any proof of reality, to imaginatively deny its consistency (denialism) or to impute to the government - which is obviously not free from criticism - a bad management of the emergency that would be the primary cause of our evils. These responses tend to lighten the burden of our condition. But a more arduous effort of thought is required.
First of all, it is a question of acknowledging that it is not over yet and renouncing the idea of ​​our recovery as the result of a linear path, free from accidents and setbacks. It is a question of giving up the "splitting" fantasy of phase two following phase one, of the light that comes after darkness.
Unlike phase one and phase two, life and death, light and darkness - as in everything in the world - also appear in this traumatic contingency mixed with each other. The path towards healing, towards an effectively full reopening of life is never straight, but spiral, made up of steps forward and relapses.
We must learn not to deny evil but to stand in front of it, to bear its weight. It is a mental posture but it is also another tremendous lesson of this virus: rushing towards the exit of the crisis while still inside the crisis makes our behaviors disordered and irrational. We must not hide that we are faced with a profound trend in human life: denying death, evil, the negative in the name of the illusion of a life without wounds and without trauma.
Knowing how to stop in front of the negative, knowing how to stay where fear is greatest means learning to live with the stranger. It is the task of a life that knows how to live up to what happens to it, which, as Deleuze recalled, is the only possible form for an ethics capable of taking reality into account.
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One of the toughest challenges for any leader is getting traction for new ideas. Winning support can be a struggle. As a result, powerful new ideas often get stuck. This is especially true in the cultural sector. People involved in arts and culture often have little time and even less money for experimentation and risks.

“Innovation isn’t necessarily that nebulous big idea floating around that maybe I’m ‘”smart” enough to grasp, it’s learning to recognize the constraints that stand in the way of success, and figuring out how to deal with them. Very practical and down-to-earth, based in reality. It’s hard after a lifetime of thinking innovation is that brilliant idea that came out of nowhere! Thank you so much for sharing your expertise with us!”
A. Marshall
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Develop concert or show boxes in all countries which will allow recipients to benefit from an important offer each month in a certain number of partner venues.
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Manipulation is like a dance: it is performed in two, there are those who lead and those who suffer. The nice thing (but not so easy) is that, having understood the deception, whoever suffers it can "abandon the dance".
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It’s not uncommon to meet a lawyer who’d like to work in renewable energy, or an app developer who’d like to write a novel, or an editor who fantasizes about becoming a landscape designer. Maybe you also dream about switching to a career that’s drastically different from your current job. But in my experience, it’s rare for such people to actually make the leap. The costs of switching seem too high, and the possibility of success seems too remote.
But the answer isn’t to plug away in your current job, unfulfilled and slowly burning out. I think the answer is to do both. Two careers are better than one. And by committing to two careers, you will produce benefits for both.
In my case, I have four vocations: I’m a corporate strategist at a Fortune 500 company, US Navy Reserve officer, author of several books, and record producer. The two questions that people ask me most frequently are “How much do you sleep?” and “How do you find time to do it all?” (my answers: “plenty” and “I make the time”). Yet these “process” questions don’t get to the heart of my reasons and motivations. Instead, a more revealing query would be, “Why do you have multiple careers?” Quite simply, working many jobs makes me happier and leaves me more fulfilled. It also helps me perform better at each job. Here’s how.

Subsidize Your Skill Development
My corporate job paycheck subsidizes my record producing career. With no track record as a producer, nobody was going to pay me to produce his or her music, and it wasn’t money that motivated me to become a producer in the first place — it was my passion for jazz and classical music. Therefore, I volunteered so that I could gain experience in this new industry. My day job not only afforded me the capital to make albums, but it taught me the skills to succeed as a producer. A good producer should be someone who knows how to create a vision, recruit personnel, establish a timeline, raise money, and deliver products. After producing over a dozen albums and winning a few Grammys, record labels and musicians have started to reach out to see if they can hire me as a producer. I still refuse payment because making music, something that is everlasting, is reward enough for me.
At the same time, I typically invite my corporate clients to recording sessions. For someone who works at an office all day, it’s exciting to go “behind-the-scenes” and interact with singers, musicians, and other creative professionals. While I was in Cuba making an album, one of my clients observed about the dancing musicians, “I’ve never been around people who have so much fun at work.” That my clients have a phenomenal experience only helps me drive revenue at work, so my corporate and recording careers are mutually beneficial.

Make Friends in Different Circles
When I worked on Wall Street, my professional circle was initially limited to other folks in the financial services sector: bankers, traders, analysts, economists. Taken together, all of us establish a “consensus” view on the markets. And most of my asset manager clients were looking for something different: “Give me a contrarian perspective.” In other words, they didn’t want to hear the groupthink. I took this as marching orders to tap my rolodex for people who could provide my clients a differentiated perspective.
For example, one of my clients wanted to understand what Chinese citizens were saying to each other. Because I am an author, I have gotten to know other writers, so I reached out to my friend who was a journalist at a periodical that monitors chatter in China. Not restricted by the compliance department of a bank, he was able to give an unbridled perspective to my client, who was most appreciative. My client got a new idea. I got a trade. My friend got a new subscriber. By being in different circles, you can selectively introduce people who would typically never meet and unlock value for everyone.

Discover Real Innovations
When you work different jobs, you can identify where ideas interact — and more significantly, where they should interact. “It’s technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities, that yields us the result that makes our heart sing,” said Steve Jobs, who was the embodiment of interdisciplinary thinking.
Because of Hurricane Katrina, many musicians left New Orleans. In order to generate funds to help musicians in the city, I could have created a typical nonprofit organization that solicits people for money. Instead, I helped create a more sustainable solution: a brokerage for musicians that I described as Wall Street meets Bourbon Street. People wanting to book a musician for a party in New York could find a band on my organization’s website, which would then ask the booker to add a “tip” which would be allocated to a New Orleans-based charity. The booker (who in some cases were my corporate clients) easily found a band for the party, the New York City-based musician got a gig, and the charity in New Orleans got a small donation. Because of my time working at a bank, I was able to create a different type of organization, one which has since merged with an even larger charitable organization.
When you follow your curiosities, you will bring passion to your new careers, which will leave you more fulfilled. And by doing more than one job, you may end up doing all of them better.
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Time is two fold: we have entropy, a progressive physical degeneration, and a perception, human experience honed by better measurement.

In reality there is for example no such thing as a second, it's a construct. Indeed all mathematics is. But it works.
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By human evolution, anthropogenesis or homination we mean the process of origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a distinct species and its diffusion on Earth.
It is an interdisciplinary subject, which includes physiology, primatology, archeology, geology, linguistics and genetics. In a taxonomic sense it concerns, in addition to the genus Homo, all the species of the seven genera of the Hominina sub-tribe, of which man is the only living representative.
According to these sciences, the evolutionary history of our species is that of Homo Sapiens, which seems to have made its first appearance on Earth about 200,000 years ago.
If on Earth every animal and plant species follows time cycles with precision, it is plausible to think that humanity, as a whole, also follows a precise evolutionary cycle.
In this sense, my hypothesis is that there is a mathematical correlation between the number of years that have passed since the appearance of Homo Sapiens on Earth, the number of days that make up an Earth year, the natural number 216, and ϕ, the golden number.
In fact, we discover that (216K / ϕ) ^ (1/2) is equal to 365.37, which corresponds to the number of days that currently make up an earth year, plus 0.128, which in any case is consistent with reality, since in the past years it is assumed that the Earth took longer than today to revolve around the sun.
Alternatively, we can observe that, considering the average of the days that make up the Earth years of the last 216K years with the approximate value of 365.37, we obtain that from the mathematical relation ϕ (365.37) ^ 2 we obtain 216K.
What can we expect from Homo Sapiens when the value of 216K years from its appearance on Earth is reached?
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For years, the ecological footprint of humanity and its activities has exceeded the biocapacity of the Earth, which in the current period (2019-2020) is causing the global collapse of our civilization.
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Russia just approved a coronavirus vaccine for use in tens of thousands of people, though it has not been thoroughly tested for effectiveness, according to news reports.
Russia named the newly approved vaccine "Sputnik V," in reference to the world's first artificial satellite, launched during the space race, Reuters reported. Russian state television has framed the worldwide effort to develop a coronavirus vaccine as a similar "race," and in announcing the approval of Sputnik V, President Vladimir Putin essentially proclaimed Russia the frontrunner, according to The New York Times.

"We must be grateful to those who made that first step very important for our country and the entire world," Putin said in a cabinet meeting Tuesday morning (Aug. 11) in reference to the vaccine developers, according to The Associated Press.
"I know [the vaccine] has proven efficient and forms a stable immunity," Putin noted, despite there being no published data from early human tests of the vaccine and no late-stage human trials currently underway. The rush to approve the vaccine has raised concerns from scientists within Russia and abroad, who say that only carefully designed human trials, which include thousands of people, can clearly demonstrate that a vaccine is safe and effective enough for public use.
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The pandemic is an immense disaster for all peoples. But has there been (and is there) a political use of fear by certain ruling elites? And for what purposes? Are those who believe that a gigantic and disturbing political experiment is taking place?

Some "non-aligned" thinkers talked about it and immediately the delegitimate media system branded them as "conspiracy theorists". But to note that something strange is happening is also - for example - the thinker symbol of mainstream Europeanism, Bernard Henri Lévy, who has just published a book: "The virus that makes mad".

Lévy rightly notes that the Covid epidemic was by no means an apocalyptic novelty in our years. He recalls the Hong Kong flu, "after May '68", which killed a million "by pulmonary hemorrhage or suffocation" or, ten years earlier, the Asian flu, which also came from China, which made two million dead.

But then the planetary panic of today did not occur. Lévy says she is "frozen", but not from the pandemic: from the "very strange way in which we reacted this time", from the "epidemic of fear that gripped the world".

In fact, “we have seen cities all over the world become ghost towns. We have all seen, from one end of the planet to the other ... whole peoples tremble and get dragged into their homes, sometimes with truncheons, like wild animals in their lairs ".

Lévy wonders if it is the “victory of the sages of the world who see in this great confinement - (…) the 'great internment' theorized by Michel Foucault in the texts in which he described the power systems of the future - the general test of a new type detention and house arrest of the bodies ”. Or if it is "the opposite" or "the reassuring sign that the world has changed, that finally sacralizes life and that chooses life between it and the economy".

The second hypothesis seems to me radically refuted by many facts and data that show how human life in the world has totally lost its sacredness.

It would remain the first, but unfortunately Lévy does not analyze it. Of course, he notes that "it was the first time we have seen all the critical minds of the ultra-left galaxy applauding a state of emergency." But he stops to protest against fear.

However, he mentions in passing the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben who - being from the left - sparked discontent and controversy on the left because, reflecting on the "ethical and political consequences" of the storm Covid captured "the transformation of the political paradigms that the exception measures went drawing. "

In his book "Where are we at?" assesses the Covid affair "in a broader historical perspective" and concludes that something important was being (and is being) experienced.

He writes: "If the powers that govern the world have decided to take the pretext of a pandemic to transform the paradigms of their government of men and things from top to bottom, this means that those models were in their eyes in progressive, inexorable decline and they were no longer adequate to the new needs (...) the ruling powers decided to abandon without regret the paradigms of bourgeois democracies, with their rights, their parliaments and their constitutions, to replace them with new devices of which we can only glimpse the drawing, probably not yet completely clear. "

Can one really use "the pretext of a pandemic" politically or does Agamben exaggerate? In fact, there are those who, already a few years ago, invited to "use" a possible pandemic for praiseworthy political purposes (obviously, in his opinion).

In 2009 - when the spread of swine flu was feared - the famous French economist and technocrat Jacques Attali, as an acute analyst, in an article on "L'Express", wrote: "History teaches us that humanity does not evolve in a significant way except when it is truly afraid: it then first of all puts in place defense mechanisms; sometimes intolerable (scapegoats and totalitarianisms); sometimes unnecessary (distraction); sometimes effective (therapeutic strategies, rejecting all previous moral principles if necessary). Then, once the crisis is over, it transforms these mechanisms to make them compatible with individual freedom and include them in a democratic health policy. This initial pandemic, "Attali wrote," could trigger one of these structural fears. "

In particular Attali, foreseeing the need to govern "prevention and control mechanisms" for "an equitable distribution of drugs and vaccines", wrote: "We will therefore, much faster than the economic reason alone would have produced, to lay the foundations of a true world government "and" in the meantime we could at least hope for the implementation of a true European policy on the matter ".
Attali in 2006 published "A brief history of the future" and already there he envisioned a "world government" that marked the end of American hegemony and saw "the European Union at the forefront of hyper-democracy". But his utopia had the traits of a dark dystopia.
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No-Covid denier marches follow one another in different regions of the world as the epidemic continues to sow disease and death. The appeal to freedom trampled on by biopower resounds like a mantra not only among the masses but also among illustrious intellectuals.
In the no-Covid gatherings it is surrounded, more or less deliriously, by ideological reasons, first of all that of the accusation of the liberticidal state, of the abuse of power, of the risk of a totalitarian return made possible by the political extension, not necessary but only strategic and instrumental, of the state of exception. In this symptomatic manifestation, political extremisms touch each other, not without raising a disturbing effect: it is striking to have to note that the irritation in the face of health and safety measures assimilates discourses that find their inspiration in deeply antagonistic ideologies. Yet the libertarian rhetoric seems to be exactly the same: the reference to the Covid danger transforms our democracies into disturbing masks of a totalitarian state. Putting on the mask again, still demanding social distancing, not considering the virus completely defeated yet means endorsing an authoritarian exercise of power that compresses our inalienable rights, means authorizing a clearly liberticidal political practice.
In my opinion, this is a criticism that has as its foundation a blindly individualistic version of freedom that does not take into account any criteria of solidarity and sharing and which, not surprisingly, has had its greatest and unfortunate international representatives in Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro. Political hooliganism irresponsible of these two tragic leaders has a ghostly matrix that we could roughly define pubertal-adolescent: «Death and illness do not exist and if they did exist they would not concern me; the omnipotence of my image is immune to any risk; if someone else is hit it is part of the game but this fact will not determine the end of the game of which I remain master ». How can we fail to see the connection between this ghostly matrix that clouds the supporters of liberticidal rhetoric and the one that ignites, in this very difficult summer, the pre-political fights among young people, the tendency to violent drive discharge which takes the erratic forms of intolerance and aggressive protest towards everything that represents public order, the need for limits, respect for the law?
If the trauma of Covid forced us to be adults, to have a vision of life that cannot be restricted to that of our Ego, to verify the impotence of our individual actions if not in concert with those of our neighbor, this recent and new anti-political wave shows, once again, how anthropologically difficult it is to see beyond our individual life, to grasp the solidarity dimension of freedom, to respect the collective dimension of the social bond. It is no coincidence that the denial attitude belongs clinically at the time of pathological adolescence where the absolute claim of one's freedom appears unhooked from any ethical reference to that of responsibility considered only as an imposture to harness the inherently indomitable force of a freedom that does not want to submit to anything other than to herself and who, above all, refuses to assume the consequences of her acts. Here again the paradigms of Trump and Bolsonaro stand out. Their reckless political choices have generated consequences of death and destruction that have crippled their peoples. Their political hooliganism is therefore not psychologically different from the one that inspires the inclination to fight, to destroy everything, to aggressive discharge as an end in itself, to the rejection of the law that have always marked the dimension, both desperate and omnipotent, of pathological adolescence. The time of the restrictions of freedoms imposed by solidarity cannot be tolerated by those who think of their freedom as an absolute right that comes before any other right. From those who forget that an adult life is one that strives to take upon themselves, first of all, the consequences of their actions.
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Nature seems to operate not only in real time, which we all know well, but also in imaginary time. The term imaginary refers to the mathematical concept (formulated for the first time at the end of the 16th century) of imaginary number, that is, of the square root of a negative number. So there is not only real time, which we know well: it is in imaginary time, where the distinction between past, present and future disappears, that Nature orchestrates the most subtle quantum phenomena.

The theory of Special Relativity in 1905 radically changed the concepts of space and time. Not only do they lose the connotation of absolute quantities, but they become relative, elastic and integrate into a single four-dimensional fabric in which reality takes place.
The quantum revolution also discovers a new possible temporal dimension: imaginary time.
In imaginary time the distinction between past, present and future disappears.
Today, science begins to wonder if it is in this dimension that the phenomena of "Synchronicity" and "Near Death Experience" take place.
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The Hi-Tech filtering solution for ventilation systems.

With increasing air pollution, the demand for better air filtration is increasing, just as we try to contain the energy impact of the plants as much as possible with a view to sustainable development: these needs appear in stark contrast to each other, however active electrostatic filters are capable of providing an effective solution.
In fact, any "mechanical" type air filter, ie whose efficiency depends mainly on phenomena of mechanical interference between the particles in transit and the filtering fibrous matrix, undergoes a progressive increase in pressure drops, due to the accumulation of transverse deposits with respect to the air flow.
For example, a medium-high efficiency paper filter, class F7-F8 according to UNI EN 779, can be characterized by initial pressure drops of 100-150 Pa, which can increase up to 450 Pa at the end of its operating life. Over the operating time, the increase in pressure drops leads to an increase in the electricity absorbed by the fans to guarantee the design flow rate, or a progressive reduction in the flow rate in systems that are unable to correctly compensate.
Active electrostatic filters, on the other hand, "remove" the suspended particles from the air flow and precipitate them on plate collectors, which are arranged along the direction of crossing. Thanks to this property, electrostatic filters offer very low pressure drops, almost constant during normal operating life, which ends when the thickness of the deposit begins to disturb the electric field, instead of preventing the passage of air, as happens in "mechanical" filters. In the case of an Expansion Electronic FE active electrostatic filter, for example, for the same efficiency class considered for the comparison with the "mechanical" filter, the pressure drops are constant and are around 30 Pa.

Many studies have shown that one of the biggest problems in ventilation systems is the reduction in flow that occurs after about 2-3 years of operation.
This fact is normally caused by the accumulation of dust and dirt on fans, batteries, channels and other system components. Furthermore, this contamination is the ideal medium for the proliferation of bacteria, microorganisms and molds which, in turn, determine an unhealthy ventilation system. Furthermore, a reduction in flow means that the ventilation system does not fulfill one of its primary functions.
If it is true that the filtration system is the main defendant, the solutions can alternatively be:

a) Increase the frequency of cleaning operations on the air handling unit, batteries, fans and ducts.
b) Improve the filtration system by adopting filters that have a good efficiency on the whole spectrum of dust (coarse, thin and ultra-thin).

Expansion Electronic's FE electrostatic active filters fully meet this second requirement.

Achieving environmental and economic improvement goals is also increasingly a concern in the HVAC sector.
Considering the type of "mechanical" filters, it can be seen that the higher the class of filtration, the more frequent the intervention for replacing the filter must be and proportionately the capacity of pollutant accumulation will be lower.
Expansion Electronic's FE electrostatic active filters have a threefold advantage over "mechanical" filters:

a) The storage capacity of pollutant is considerably higher. For example, for an FE 600 filter (592x592), the storage capacity is 600 g of DEHS ISO 12103-A2 dust, about four times higher than that of an H10 filter. This reduces the frequency of maintenance interventions and the consequent costs for the disposal of "mechanical" filters.
b) Unlike the "mechanical" filters, the active electrostatic filters can be regenerated and reintegrated into the system. Their cleaning takes place through water and detergent. If the maintenance is carried out correctly, the active electrostatic filters can last many years (on average 10-15).
c) As previously explained in the section dedicated to energy efficiency, active electrostatic filters have significantly lower pressure drops, allowing for significant energy savings.

In ventilation systems that install "mechanical" filters, there is a possible formation and release of toxic microbial products from decomposition, such as endotoxins.
On the contrary, the electrostatic filter has a high antibacterial power due to its high efficiency on submicronic particles and the action of the electric field. The results of some tests carried out at the ILH Institute of Air Hygiene in Berlin and the Policlinico San Matteo in Pavia show that the filter systems of Expansion Electronic are able to eliminate air-dispersed bacteria, yeasts and molds from the air with an efficiency ranging from 98.53% to 99.96%.

In indoor environments, the presence of ultra-fine powders (PM 1, PM 0.4 and lower) is increasingly found, which reach values ​​much higher than those found outdoors. This fact is mainly due to the accumulation of dust resulting from the introduction of outside air (especially winter) not properly treated, and to the difficulties related to their elimination.
99.9% of all the particles present in the atmospheric air are less than 1μm.
Ultra-fine powders and nanopowders are the most dangerous for health as they reach the lung alveoli and from here enter the bloodstream. They are the most difficult to catch.
A marked filtering action towards the ultrathin air dusts allows to act decisively on the prevention of many pathologies, even serious ones attributable to the effect of the mineral nano-micro-powders such as chromium, iron, lead, etc. (see the new medical discipline of nanopathology).
The choice of particularly effective filters towards ultra-fine dust is a guarantee for decontamination from microorganisms (bacteria-viruses) present in the air and their decomposition which is one of the causes of sick building syndrome.
The electrostatic active filters of the Expansion Electronic FE series have a high filtration efficiency on all aspects of dust. As an example, at a filter crossing speed of 1.5 m / s, an FE filter offers a filtration efficiency of 98.8% on a particle size of 0.4 µm and 98.4% on 0.13 µm.
To achieve these performances with "mechanical" filters it is necessary to use absolute filters.

The UNI 11254 standard classifies active electrostatic filters into four filtering grades (A, B, C, D). The efficiency taken into consideration in this standard is the average Em efficiency on the grain size of DEHS of 0.4 μm.
A homogeneous comparison with the "mechanical" type filters is not possible, since the efficiency classes of the latter take into consideration:

a) The average filtration efficiencies over the useful life of the filter which is not constant, but grows with the impregnation of dust by the particulate filter with a particle size of 0.4 μm (class F, EN 779).
b) The minimum filtration efficiencies for particulates with a particle size of 0.3 μm (class H, EN 1822).

However, FE filters can be combined with mechanical filters (classes F or H) based on their performance towards the particle size.
The same FE filter offers, in terms of performance, an increasing filtration efficiency with decreasing air passage speed.
At a speed of 4 m / s a ​​FE filter will be comparable to a "mechanical" class F7 filter, while at 1.5 m / s its filtration efficiency will make it comparable to a class H12 filter. Therefore, in a system with a variable flow rate, with an active electrostatic filter, the minimum efficiency class will be that obtained at the maximum flow rate and will grow for lower flow rates. This peculiarity does not exist for mechanical filters that maintain the same efficiency class at the different operating flow rates, although the degree of efficiency is minimum with a new filter.

Choosing an inadequate filter for the air treatment unit will make the performance of the system poor because most of the ultra-fine dust contained in the air passes through the system and enters the circulation. In the long run, this causes the batteries, the fan, the channels to become dirty and a high concentration of ultra-fine powders that are difficult to eliminate in the treated environments.
The choice of a high efficiency filter considerably reduces the effects mentioned above. The high performance of Expansion Electronic's active electrostatic filters towards fine (PM 2.5), ultra-thin (PM 1) and nano (PM 0.4) dusts make it the ideal choice for all those who want to obtain from a ventilation system. a high degree of air hygiene, markedly reduced maintenance costs, significantly reduced energy costs, large storage capacities (600g) and, last but not least, constant air flow and efficiency over time.
Having a high efficiency on the whole spectrum of dust means inducing high air quality especially from a hygiene point of view (bacteria, spores, molds, viruses, etc.), as well as safeguarding the system (batteries of exchange, channels, etc.) with important returns on maintenance costs.

The active electrostatic filter is a high precision filter, composed of noble materials and is not intended for "disposable".
The higher initial cost will be amortized over time (2.5 - 3.5 years) for:

a) lower maintenance costs;
b) lower energy consumption compared to a high quality Indoor air quality.

It can therefore be understood that active electrostatic filters allow a return on investment which must be considered in all respects an important parameter of choice.
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Antibodies from blood donated by people who recovered from the illness and hyper-immunoglobulins are becoming treatments of choice for COVID-19, with recombinant polyclonal antibody approaches to follow.

A group of US academic researchers has sparked a nationwide effort to encourage people who have recovered from COVID-19 to donate plasma, which will be used to treat patients across the country. The convalescent plasma program was instigated by physicians and investigators from 40 institutions, including the Mayo Clinic, Johns Hopkins University, Washington University, Einstein Medical Center and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, among many others working closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and industry partners. The UK’s National Health Service launched in April a program across its 23 main blood centers to collect convalescent plasma for testing in planned clinical trials. At the same time, a consortium of industry players — Takeda, CSL Behring, Biotest, Bio Products Laboratory, LFB, Octapharma and Microsoft — has come together to develop an unbranded polyclonal antibody product: hyperimmune globulin (H-Ig) purified from the pooled plasma of donors who have recovered from COVID-19. Elsewhere, convalescent plasma treatment is getting a twenty-first century facelift, with two efforts attempting to capture the entire human antibody repertoire against SARS-CoV-2 in recombinant platforms: a collaboration between SAb Biotherapeutics, CSL Behring and the US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) working to introduce artificial chromosomes into cattle to produce human antibodies and an effort by GigaGen to introduce an antibody library against SARS-CoV-2 into a mammalian cell line. The goal is to scale up polyclonal antibody manufacturing to produce treatment cocktails directed against the betacoronavirus causing COVID-19. But, as with every other response to the pandemic, scaling these efforts to the point where they can have a meaningful and immediate impact presents a complex set of problems.
The first reports on the use of convalescent plasma transfusions to treat COVID-19 came from a couple of case series rather than properly controlled trials, but their outcomes were encouraging (Table 1). Five patients at the Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital in Shenzhen, China, were treated with convalescent plasma. Of these, three were discharged and the other two were stable as of 25 March, despite having been in respiratory failure before the transfusion. A second study followed ten patients with severe disease, recruited from three hospitals in Wuhan, China. By data cutoff, three had been discharged and the other seven were ready for discharge. In contrast, among ten matched historical controls with similar baseline characteristics, three died, one improved and six stabilized — meaning their condition neither improved nor worsened. TABLE 1 | SELECTED TRIALS OF CONVALESCENT PLASMA DUE TO COMPLETE THIS YEAR
Lead institutionStudy phaseDescriptionNumber of participantsPrimary endpointStudy completion date
Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (Paris)2Randomized controlled trial of CP versus SOC in patients who receive 2 units of CP as quickly as possible and no later than 10 days after onset of symptoms120Survival without need of ventilation or immune-modulatory drugs at day 1415 May 2020
Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne (Paris)3Placebo-controlled trial of IVIG in COVID-19 patients with ARDS138Number of ventilator-free days up to day 28August 2020
China-Japan Friendship Hospital (Beijing)0Randomized controlled trial comparing CP plus SOC with SOC in patients with COVID-1950Time to clinical recovery after randomization15 August 2020
Erasmus Medical Center (Rotterdam, the Netherlands)2/3Randomized comparative trial of CP versus SOC in patients with severe disease426Overall mortality1 July 2020
Peking Union Medical College Hospital (Beijing)2/3Randomized open-label study comparing IVIG therapy with SOC80Clinical improvement of 2 points or more on 7-point scale and improvements in Murray lower-lung and lung-injury scores30 June 2020
Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid)2Comparison of CP plus SOC with SOC only in hospitalized patients with early-stage disease278Percentage of patients requiring ventilation, high-flow oxygen or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or dying at day 15July 2020
Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China)N/ARandomized, double-blind controlled study comparing anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus-inactivated plasma with control plasma in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia60Minimum 2-point improvement on 6-point clinical scaleN/A
The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China)N/AExperimental study comparing CP plus SOC with SOC only in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia100Cure rate, mortalityN/A
Universidad del Rosario (Bogotá, Columbia)2/3Open-label study in patients with moderate disease, comparing CP hydroxychloroquine with hydroxychloroquine only80Change in viral load and changes in IgM and IgG antibody titers31 December 2020
Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital (Wuhan, China)N/ARandomized, double-blind, parallel controlled trial of CP in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia100Minimum 2-point improvement on 6-point clinical scaleN/A
ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CP, convalescent plasma; IgM and IgG, immunoglobulin M and G; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; SOC, standard of care; N/A, not available. Sources:;;
Data from additional studies in China and South Korea are slowly starting to flow, but many clinical centers are not waiting for further evidence, given the urgency of the crisis and the lack of proven therapeutic alternatives. “This option rapidly became the best option without really demonstrating that it would work,” says Arturo Casadevall, chair of molecular microbiology and immunology at Johns Hopkins University, who kick-started the US effort to deploy convalescent plasma. “The likelihood of harm is very low relative to the possibility of benefit,” he says.
It is, however, important to understand how best to deploy convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19. “The world is going to be dealing with this for a while longer,” says Casadevall. “We really need to figure out how to use antibody therapies.” So far, the emphasis has understandably been on patients with severe disease who have run out of treatment options. Johns Hopkins is one of the few centers planning to embark on a prospective prevention trial, led by associate professor of medicine Shmuel Shoham, to assess whether convalescent plasma can confer passive immunity on recipients. “Antibodies always work best either prophylactically or early,” says Casadevall. Encouragingly, the initial reports from China suggest the therapy may also work during the later phases of the disease, when acute respiratory distress syndrome is already established. In the Shenzhen study, patients received convalescent plasma between 10 and 22 days after admission, and those in the Wuhan study received it a median of 16.5 days after the onset of symptoms. During the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak, patients who received convalescent plasma within two weeks experienced significantly better outcomes than those who received it after that point.
Further evidence on the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 will flow from the US expanded access program. This large-scale open-label study will use synthetic control groups to compare outcomes between patients who receive convalescent plasma and those who do not. The initiative is scaling rapidly — by 30 April, 2,004 sites had been registered, 7,774 patients had enrolled, and 3,809 of them had undergone transfusion. All participating sites will adhere to a single expanded-access protocol agreed by the US FDA, and the Mayo Clinic will provide a single institutional review board, removing the requirement for each participating site to establish its own board to ensure appropriate standards for treatment and data collection.
One question is whether there will be enough convalescent plasma to go around, particularly in the early months of the pandemic when the ratio of recovered patients to uninfected individuals is low. On the plus side, the ratio between donors and recipients is favorable: patients typically get only one or two units of blood-group-matched convalescent plasma, whereas donors typically donate two to three units. “The geometric math is in your favor on this one,” says Michael Joyner, professor of anesthesiology at the Mayo Clinic and national clinical lead on the program. “There is an amplification effect.” About 70% of the general public are considered eligible to donate blood. Applying the same rule of thumb to the present crisis suggests that 70% of those who recover may be suitable donors, but that represents an upper limit at best.
The FDA’s recently published guidance recommends a minimum neutralizing antibody titer of 1:160 (meaning that a 1-in-160 dilution of a given unit of plasma has activity against the virus); the European Commission’s recent guidance recommends a 1:320 titer. Antibody titers are generally tested with high throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but most sites do not have ELISA-based SARS-CoV-2 testing in place as yet. “Right now, we’re just working under the assumption that it works,” says Joyner. In time, the study will analyze the relationship between clinical outcomes and neutralizing antibody titers present in the donated plasma.
If convalescent plasma can be considered the first leg in a therapeutic relay race, H-Ig is the second. Whereas convalescent plasma requires minimal manipulation — screening for transmissible pathogens and pathogen inactivation are the main processes employed — H-Ig is a standardized pharmaceutical product, made from the purified antibody fraction. As such, it requires full clinical development before approval. “One way of thinking about this is the convalescent plasma is the starting material,” says Julie Kim, president of Takeda’s business unit for plasma-derived therapies. But the end product differs from convalescent plasma in its purity and composition: H-Ig principally contains the immunoglobulin G antibody fraction of the donated plasma, whereas convalescent plasma contains all the blood fluid minus the cellular fraction. H-Ig is, therefore, more concentrated and more potent than convalescent plasma. “It’s consistent, it’s scalable, it’s reliable; it can be shipped around the world,” says Kim. Tokyo-based Takeda and CSL Behring have established the CoVIg-19 Plasma Alliance to accelerate the development of a single, unbranded H-Ig product for COVID-19. They have been joined by four other blood-product firms: Biotest, based in Dreieich, Germany; Bio Products Laboratory, of Elstree, UK; Les Ulis, France-based LFB; and Lachen, Switzerland-based Octapharma. Microsoft is also supporting the initiative and has developed the CoVIg-19 Bot, a self-screening tool for potential donors to assess their eligibility and to locate the nearest plasma collection center.
Other firms are developing additional products, including Barcelona-based Grifols, which will produce a H-Ig product at its facility in Clayton, North Carolina, and Emergent BioSolutions, which is developing both a human H-Ig product, COVID-HIG, and a product based on equine antibodies, developed from the plasma of horses immunized with SARS-CoV-2.
There is, of course, no clean ‘baton exchange’ — to extend the relay metaphor — between convalescent plasma and H-Ig; their use will inevitably overlap, even if they become available at different timescales. “We absolutely believe there is room for both. Convalescent plasma has more immediacy. Ours will take a while to produce,” says Bill Mezzanotte, head of research and development at CSL Behring. Before the formation of the alliance, Takeda had aimed to have H-Ig available in 9–18 months, Kim says. “With the alliance, we hope to beat that.”
Efforts to develop recombinant H-Ig-like products are underway as well. Most advanced is SAb Biotherapeutics, which is collaborating with CSL Behring and BARDA to develop SAB-185, a polyclonal human antibody cocktail obtained from the plasma of transgenic cattle immunized with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The platform, which involves introducing the full complement of human antibody genes on an artificial chromosome, has spent two decades in development. “We ‘bovinized’ portions of the human antibody genes,” SAB CEO and cofounder Eddie Sullivan says. The amino acid sequence of the resulting antibodies are still fully human, but the genes contain bovine regulatory elements that optimize their expression in bovine plasma cells. The company is following a hybrid regulatory pathway originally opened more than a decade ago by Revo Biologics (formerly GTC Biotherapeutics) for the production of Atryn (recombinant human antithrombin) in the milk of transgenic goats. It involves the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) and its Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. “CVM reviews the animal platform; CBER regulates the antibody product itself,” Sullivan says.
SAb has already demonstrated the feasibility of the approach with a different antibody cocktail, SAB-301, directed against the spike protein of another lethal coronavirus, Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In a placebo-controlled phase 1 trial in 38 healthy volunteers, SAB-301 demonstrated a placebo-like safety profile and, importantly, those who received the cocktail did not develop an antibody response against any of its components, Sullivan says. The final antibody preparation is highly purified to minimize the presence of any bovine material. When fully up and running, the production process is highly efficient. “We’re hyperimmunizing the animals so we develop very high antibody titers to the virus,” says Sullivan. Fully grown animals — which are all clones of the same genotype — produce up to 45 liters per month and antibody yields of up to 25 grams per liter. “This is a system that is very scalable,” Sullivan says. SAb is producing “a few hundred” animals this year. Once they have grown sufficiently, it will be able to start scaling SAB-185 production, assuming it proves to be safe and effective. SAb expects to start trials by early summer.
GigaGen, which is backed by Grifols, is a more recent arrival, and its cell-based recombinant polyclonal immunoglobulin production system is at an earlier stage of development. It involves capturing on a microfluidics platform the complete B-cell populations of five to ten people who have recovered COVID-19 and mounted a robust immune response to the virus. The associated antibody-encoding genes are then transferred into a mammalian cell line. The resulting polyclonal pool of antibody-producing cells is grown en masse, giving rise to a highly diverse and potent product containing many thousands of polyclonal immunoglobulins. “We’re recreating their entire repertoire,” says GigaGen CEO and cofounder David Johnson. “We don’t make any bet about what the best epitope is — or the best mechanism of action,” he says. “It’s really difficult to know what are the particular factors that led to somebody’s recovery.”
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated GigaGen plans to move into clinical trials, but it needs to start producing batches under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions before it can file an Investigational New Drug application. “Our biggest bottleneck is finding a manufacturing site,” says Johnson. It hopes to secure a slot during the summer and aims to reach the clinic late this year or early next.
For the vast majority of the many thousands of people who have already died from COVID-19 or have endured severe illness that will have long-term consequences, all of these interventions come too late. There is an inevitable lag between the onset of a pandemic and the ability of the clinical community and pharmaceutical and biotech companies to respond. But the global effort to push back SARS-CoV-2 will need to continue for some time to come.
“People need to recognize when the first wave is done, we’ve probably gotten to only about half of the deaths,” Joyner says. Doctors treating patients have little choice but to use the best interventions available at a given time. “In these sort of situations, the enemy of good is better,” he says. But as we move further into the pandemic, the evidence base supporting the clinical utility of those interventions will steadily improve — and so too, one hopes, will the outcomes.
50 1 Votes
Male and female, energies belonging to a single unit that has been divided.
Originally the human being was at the same time man and woman called androgynous.

When the separation of the sexes took place, everyone went their own way but each of us
bears deeply engraved in one's soul, the imprint, the image of the other.
For this reason, when a man or woman, among hundreds and thousands of people, they notice one in particular that approaches him to the image they carry within themselves, they feel happy and strive to be close to that person.
Unfortunately it often happens that after some time they realize that that image does not correspond to theirs at all and therefore they leave to look for another one. And once again they hope to find the other half, the soul mate.
One day this meeting between the two principles will actually take place because the love between them is more powerful than anything else.
In reality, our soul mate is in ourselves and the other is only the pole of ourselves.
The "know thyself" principle is the fusion of the two principles.
It means find the other Pole in yourself and you will become a divinity.
When the two Poles meet, this knowledge takes place primarily in the worlds of Light. It is therefore necessary to learn to love oneself in the right way first, being careful not to do any harm with thoughts, feelings and words since in this way they prepare internally the necessary conditions for the Divine and the Light to dwell in we.
In initiatory science it is said that nothing can be found externally that has not already been found internally. In fact, you can pass without seeing anything of what you encounter externally, if you have not already found it within you.

The more you discover inner beauty the more you will discover it on the physical plane.

This is the way one has to love one another and such love for oneself is something Divine.
Those who do not know how to love each other do not love God and do not love others.
In love, in relationships and therefore in a couple, if this principle is not implemented, harmful mechanisms begin to be established.
When the two people look for each other, very often both think only of taking. In nature, all creatures who know how to give something good are loved and you feel attracted to them, while those who take, after a while, you start to avoid them. Love is our development and the experience of love, as human beings have made it, is often never very clear.
How come some think they can eternally prey on others?

Those who are plundered soon notice it and then abandon those who plundered them.
There are often toxic relationships where the man wants to suck the woman's life, and vice versa.
Example: a man thinks he loves a woman but instead of understanding that something Divine exists in her and undertaking sublime realizations he wants to give vent to his desire by ruining and destroying everything.
This obviously applies to both.
If this happens in a relationship, it is better to separate because they transgress the law of love.
So let's protect ourselves from all those people who want to take and therefore keep our heart by giving it only to the Divine.
We develop the tendency to give.
We distribute our feelings to others.
How then?
Look at the tree: it retains its roots, its trunk, its branches, but distributes its fruits.
So nature conceived things.
We therefore distribute our fruits, that is, thoughts, feelings, words, light, strength but we preserve our heart and our body.

Our happiness depends on a good understanding of love.
When you love someone, thank heaven for experiencing that feeling because they are exceptional conditions to elevate us, have courage, momentum and inspiration to bring back inner and spiritual victories.

Loving is a blessing. That's why you need to protect your love for as long as possible.
5 1 Votes
As millions of people across the country take to the streets and raise their voices in response to the killing of George Floyd and the ongoing problem of unequal justice, many people have reached out asking how we can sustain momentum to bring about real change. Ultimately, it’s going to be up to a new generation of activists to shape strategies that best fit the times. But I believe there are some basic lessons to draw from past efforts that are worth remembering. First, the waves of protests across the country represent a genuine and legitimate frustration over a decades-long failure to reform police practices and the broader criminal justice system in the United States. The overwhelming majority of participants have been peaceful, courageous, responsible, and inspiring. They deserve our respect and support, not condemnation – something that police in cities like Camden and Flint have commendably understood. On the other hand, the small minority of folks who’ve resorted to violence in various forms, whether out of genuine anger or mere opportunism, are putting innocent people at risk, compounding the destruction of neighborhoods that are often already short on services and investment and detracting from the larger cause. I saw an elderly black woman being interviewed today in tears because the only grocery store in her neighborhood had been trashed. If history is any guide, that store may take years to come back. So let’s not excuse violence, or rationalize it, or participate in it. If we want our criminal justice system, and American society at large, to operate on a higher ethical code, then we have to model that code ourselves. Second, I’ve heard some suggest that the recurrent problem of racial bias in our criminal justice system proves that only protests and direct action can bring about change, and that voting and participation in electoral politics is a waste of time. I couldn’t disagree more. The point of protest is to raise public awareness, to put a spotlight on injustice, and to make the powers that be uncomfortable; in fact, throughout American history, it’s often only been in response to protests and civil disobedience that the political system has even paid attention to marginalized communities. But eventually, aspirations have to be translated into specific laws and institutional practices – and in a democracy, that only happens when we elect government officials who are responsive to our demands. Moreover, it’s important for us to understand which levels of government have the biggest impact on our criminal justice system and police practices. When we think about politics, a lot of us focus only on the presidency and the federal government. And yes, we should be fighting to make sure that we have a president, a Congress, a U.S. Justice Department, and a federal judiciary that actually recognize the ongoing, corrosive role that racism plays in our society and want to do something about it. But the elected officials who matter most in reforming police departments and the criminal justice system work at the state and local levels. It’s mayors and county executives that appoint most police chiefs and negotiate collective bargaining agreements with police unions. It’s district attorneys and state’s attorneys that decide whether or not to investigate and ultimately charge those involved in police misconduct. Those are all elected positions. In some places, police review boards with the power to monitor police conduct are elected as well. Unfortunately, voter turnout in these local races is usually pitifully low, especially among young people – which makes no sense given the direct impact these offices have on social justice issues, not to mention the fact that who wins and who loses those seats is often determined by just a few thousand, or even a few hundred, votes. So the bottom line is this: if we want to bring about real change, then the choice isn’t between protest and politics. We have to do both. We have to mobilize to raise awareness, and we have to organize and cast our ballots to make sure that we elect candidates who will act on reform. Finally, the more specific we can make demands for criminal justice and police reform, the harder it will be for elected officials to just offer lip service to the cause and then fall back into business as usual once protests have gone away. The content of that reform agenda will be different for various communities. A big city may need one set of reforms; a rural community may need another. Some agencies will require wholesale rehabilitation; others should make minor improvements. Every law enforcement agency should have clear policies, including an independent body that conducts investigations of alleged misconduct. Tailoring reforms for each community will require local activists and organizations to do their research and educate fellow citizens in their community on what strategies work best. But as a starting point, I’ve included two links below. One leads to a report and toolkit developed by the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights and based on the work of the Task Force on 21st Century Policing that I formed when I was in the White House. And if you’re interested in taking concrete action, we’ve also created a dedicated site at the Obama Foundation to aggregate and direct you to useful resources and organizations who’ve been fighting the good fight at the local and national levels for years. I recognize that these past few months have been hard and dispiriting – that the fear, sorrow, uncertainty, and hardship of a pandemic have been compounded by tragic reminders that prejudice and inequality still shape so much of American life. But watching the heightened activism of young people in recent weeks, of every race and every station, makes me hopeful. If, going forward, we can channel our justifiable anger into peaceful, sustained, and effective action, then this moment can be a real turning point in our nation’s long journey to live up to our highest ideals. Let’s get to work.
Black holes have long been a source of much excitement and intrigue. And interest regarding black holes will surely grow now that gravitational waves have been discovered.
Many of the questions I am asked regard how “true” science fiction concerning black holes might be, and whether worm holes, such as those featured in Stargate, are real or not. Invariably though, the one item that is almost assured to come up are the largely gruesome ways in which black holes might theoretically affect human beings and the Earth itself.

Mass, charge, spin
There are three properties of a black hole that are (in principle) measurable: their mass, their spin (or angular momentum) and their overall electronic charge. Indeed, these are the only three parameters that an outside observer can ever know about since all other information about anything that goes in to making up a black hole is lost. This is known as the “no hair theorem”. Put simply: no matter how hairy or complex an object you throw in to a black hole, it will get reduced down (or shaved) to its mass, charge and spin.
Of these parameters, mass is arguably the most significant. The very definition of a black hole is that it has its mass concentrated in to a vanishingly small volume – the “singularity”. And it is the mass of the black hole – and the huge gravitational forces that its mass generates – which does the “damage” to nearby objects.

Space spaghetti
One of the best known effects of a nearby black hole has the imaginative title of “Spaghettification”. In brief, if you stray too close to a black hole, then you will stretch out, just like spaghetti.
This effect is caused due to a gravitation gradient across your body. Imagine that you are headed feet first towards a black hole. Since your feet are physically closer to the black hole, they will feel a stronger gravitation pull towards it than your head will. Worse than that, your arms, by virtue of the fact that they’re not at the centre of your body, will be attracted in a slightly different (vector) direction than your head is. This will cause parts of the body toward the edges to be brought inwards. The net result is not only an elongation of the body overall, but also a thinning out (or compression) in the middle. Hence, your body or any other object, such as Earth, will start to resemble spaghetti long before it hits the centre of the black hole.
The exact point at which these forces become too much to bear will depend critically on the mass of a black hole. For an “ordinary” black hole that has been produced by the collapse of a high mass star, this could be several hundred kilometres away from the event horizon – the point beyond which no information can escape a black hole. Yet for a supermassive black hole, such as the one thought to reside at the centre of our galaxy, an object could readily sink below the event horizon before becoming spaghetti, at a distance of many tens of thousands of kilometres from its centre. For a distant observer outside the event horizon of the black hole, it would appear that we progressively slow down and then fade away over time.

Bad news for Earth
What would happen, hypothetically, if a black hole appeared out of nowhere next to Earth? The same gravitational effects that produced spaghettification would start to take effect here. The edge of the Earth closest to the black hole would feel a much stronger force than the far side. As such, the doom of the entire planet would be at hand. We would be pulled apart.
Equally, we might not even notice if a truly supermassive black hole swallowed us below its event horizon as everything would appear as it once was, at least for a small period of time. In this case, it could be some time before disaster struck. But don’t lose too much sleep, we’d have to be unfortunate to “hit” a black hole in the first place – and we might live on holographically after the crunch anyway.

Mind the radiation
Interestingly, black holes are not necessarily black. Quasars – objects at the hearts of distant galaxies powered by black holes – are supremely bright. They can readily outshine the rest of their host galaxy combined. Such radiation is generated when the black hole is feasting on new material. To be clear: this material is still outside the event horizon which is why we can still see it. Below the event horizon is where nothing, not even light, can escape. As all the matter piles up from the feast, it will glow. It is this glow that is seen when observers look at quasars.
But this is a problem for anything orbiting (or near) a black hole, as it is very hot indeed. Long before we would be spaghettified, the sheer power of this radiation would fry us.

Life around a black hole
For those who have watched Christopher Nolan’s film Interstellar, the prospect of a planet orbiting around a black hole might be an appealing one. For life to thrive, there needs to be a source of energy or a temperature difference. And a black hole can be that source. There’s a catch, though. The black hole needs to have stopped feasting on any material – or it will be emitting too much radiation to support life on any neighbouring worlds.
What life would look like on such a world (assuming its not too close to get spaghettified, of course) is another matter. The amount of power received by the planet would probably be tiny compared to what Earth receives from the Sun. And the overall environment of such a planet could be equally bizzare. Indeed, in the creation of Interstellar, Kip Thorne was consulted to ensure the accuracy of the depiction of the black hole featured. These factors do not preclude life, it just makes it a tough prospect and very hard to predict what forms it could take.
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What are the real reasons that brought hundreds of thousands of African irregular migrants to Europe? The results of the UNDP (United Nations Development Program) investigation are clear: hundreds of thousands of Africans illegally reached Europe, resorting to criminal organizations and not to be rejected, they lied claiming to be refugees in escape from wars and persecutions.
They land in Europe after crossing the Mediterranean and seek asylum, "so they are not economic emigrants". One of the first recommendations addressed to newcomers by employees of NGOs and cooperatives that assist those who enter Italy illegally seems to be to declare refugees, to beware of saying that you have left the country of origin in search of work or in any case better luck, a statement that would classify them as illegal to repatriate.

Instead, asylum applications start the procedure foreseen by international conventions to ascertain the truthfulness of what has been said and decide whether to give migrants the legal status of refugee that authorizes them to reside in the country in which they have applied for asylum: if it is Italy , guests of a CAS, an extraordinary reception center.

We have been talking about them for a few days: because the landings have quintupled compared to 2019, because there is evidence that Malta rejects them and directs them to Italy, and because of the chat in which magistrates recognized that Matteo Salvini was right when as minister of the interior he opposed their landing, but was still attacked.

Whether they are refugees or emigrants makes a difference because only those who flee from threats to life and freedom admit that they enter a foreign country without documents in order and yet they must be welcomed. So last year the UNDP, the United Nations Development Program, commissioned an investigation to find out what the real reasons were that brought hundreds of thousands of African irregular migrants to Europe. The research results were published in October 2019 in a report entitled "The Scaling Fences: Voices of Irregular African Migrants to Europe". Reading it is useful for the information it contains. The same cannot be said of the conclusions it reaches.

UNDP researchers interviewed 1,970 people in 13 European states, originating in 39 African countries. The answers - explains the UNDP - deny "what is commonly said about irregular emigration from Africa to Europe". In fact, all the interviewees declare that they traveled using irregular channels, in other words relying on men's smuggler organizations, and that they did so not because they were driven by the need to seek asylum. The figure is surprising even for those who know that most of the asylum applications are without foundation and are rejected.

Many emigrants were by no means poor at home and do not have a low level of education, the report continues. That the poor cannot bear the high cost of an illegal travel has long been established. But the UNDP study says more. 9 out of 100 respondents went to school upon departure. 49 out of a hundred had a job. On average, they attended school for at least three years longer than their peers and, although about 50 percent said they did not earn enough, almost all of them received good, above average, wages.

Other interesting information emerges from the interviews. 41 percent of immigrants say nothing would dissuade them from leaving. 93 out of 100 say they took risks during the trip, but only 2 out of 100 say that if they knew what was waiting for them they would have given up on the plan to migrate irregularly. In addition to economic motivations, many add the unease due to unjust and corrupt governments, the sense of powerlessness in the face of political systems that do not create development, which keep people in poverty.

Although not everyone wants to live permanently in Europe, two factors cause them to stay. Among those who have found employment, some send money home: it is less than a third of what they earn, however, they say, equivalent to about 85 percent of what they earned at home. Going home would make this contribution to the family less, given the difficulty of reintegration into economic and social life, especially for those who return without resources. In the case of those who do not have a job, the shame of having failed, of not having implemented the project of sending remittances to families and communities is the main factor that prevents them from returning home. This is especially true for 53 percent of respondents who say they have received some form of financial help from relatives and friends to pay for travel expenses in Europe.

The results of the UNDP investigation are clear. Those who want to stop irregular migrants are right: they confirm that hundreds of thousands of Africans have reached Europe illegally, resorting to criminal organizations, to not be rejected they have lied claiming to be refugees fleeing wars and persecutions. Little considered but equally important fact, some of them find a regular job and it would seem a good thing. But every job so busy goes to the detriment of those who try to emigrate following rules and legal procedures: in Italy, starting from the entry quotas of non-EU workers established every year by the Directorate-General for Immigration and Integration Policies .

This is what the UNDP conclusions should deal with. Instead "the fundamental message that emerges from this study - comments the report - is that emigration is the effect of uneven development and in particular of a development that excludes young people, sends a strong signal to policy makers". The UNDP seems to consider irrelevant what instead constitutes the peculiarity of the phenomenon considered: the fact that young Africans decide to leave their countries clandestinely, headed for a continent, Europe, where it is completely unlikely that they will find a job, while millions of Africans instead emigrate regularly, mostly without leaving their continent, choosing as destination countries where there is a demand for labor.

It is worth highlighting the use of the expression "uneven development" because it refers to the Marxist theories of the 60s of the last century which attribute to the capitalist system, to its exploitation of the "peripheries" of the world, to its "domination" on the planet. cause of underdevelopment and persistent poverty.
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Mental health screening and surveillance of apps, social media and phones are being used to monitor all behavior and then through computer programming, predict mental disorder and the need for psychiatric or psychological intervention.
0 0 Votes
A close look at fundamental symmetries has exposed hidden patterns in the universe. Physicists think that those same symmetries may also reveal time’s original secret.

In late August 2019, paleontologists reported finding the fossil of a flattened turtle shell that “was possibly trodden on” by a dinosaur, whose footprints spanned the rock layer directly above. The rare discovery of correlated fossils potentially traces two bygone species to the same time and place. “It’s only by doing that that we’re able to reconstruct ancient ecosystems,” one paleontologist toldThe New York Times.
The approach parallels the way cosmologists go about inferring the history of the universe. Like fossils, astronomical objects are not randomly strewn throughout space. Rather, spatial correlations between the positions of objects such as galaxies tell a detailed story of the ancient past. “Paleontologists infer the existence of dinosaurs to give a rational accounting of strange patterns of bones,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a physicist and cosmologist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. “We look at patterns in space today, and we infer a cosmological history in order to explain them.”
One curious pattern cosmologists have known about for decades is that space is filled with correlated pairs of objects: pairs of hot spots seen in telescopes’ maps of the early universe; pairs of galaxies or of galaxy clusters or superclusters in the universe today; pairs found at all distances apart. You can see these “two-point correlations” by moving a ruler all over a map of the sky. When there’s an object at one end, cosmologists find that this ups the chance that an object also lies at the other end.
The simplest explanation for the correlations traces them to pairs of quantum particles that fluctuated into existence as space exponentially expanded at the start of the Big Bang. Pairs of particles that arose early on subsequently moved the farthest apart, yielding pairs of objects far away from each other in the sky today. Particle pairs that arose later separated less and now form closer-together pairs of objects. Like fossils, the pairwise correlations seen throughout the sky encode the passage of time — in this case, the very beginning of time.
Cosmologists believe that rare quantum fluctuations involving three, four or even more particles should also have occurred during the birth of the universe. These presumably would have yielded more complicated configurations of objects in the sky today: triangular arrangements of galaxies, along with quadrilaterals, pentagons and other shapes. Telescopes haven’t yet spotted these statistically subtle “higher-point” correlations, but finding them would help physicists better understand the first moments after the Big Bang.
Yet theorists have found it challenging even to calculate what the signals would look like — until recently. In the past four years, a small group of researchers has approached the question in a new way. They have found that the form of the correlations follows directly from symmetries and other deep mathematical principles. The most important findings to date were detailed in a paper by Arkani-Hamed and three co-authors that took its final form this summer.
The physicists employed a strategy known as the bootstrap, a term derived from the phrase “pick yourself up by your own bootstraps” (instead of pushing off of the ground). The approach infers the laws of nature by considering only the mathematical logic and self-consistency of the laws themselves, instead of building on empirical evidence. Using the bootstrap philosophy, the researchers derived and solved a concise mathematical equation that dictates the possible patterns of correlations in the sky that result from different primordial ingredients.
“They’ve found ways of calculating things that just look totally different from the textbook approaches,” said Tom Hartman, a theoretical physicist at Cornell University who has applied the bootstrap in other contexts.
Eva Silverstein, a theoretical physicist at Stanford University who wasn’t involved in the research, added that the recent paper by Arkani-Hamed and collaborators is “a really beautiful contribution.” Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the work, Silverstein and others said, is what it implies about the nature of time. There’s no “time” variable anywhere in the new bootstrapped equation. Yet it predicts cosmological triangles, rectangles and other shapes of all sizes that tell a sensible story of quantum particles arising and evolving at the beginning of time.
This suggests that the temporal version of the cosmological origin story may be an illusion. Time can be seen as an “emergent” dimension, a kind of hologram springing from the universe’s spatial correlations, which themselves seem to come from basic symmetries. In short, the approach has the potential to help explain why time began, and why it might end. As Arkani-Hamed put it, “The thing that we’
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