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The Nature of Time!

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Imaginary time is a mathematical simplification of time that is used in several equations across quantum mechanics and general relativity.

What happened at the beginning of the universe? Most people would simplify and say that there was a Big Bang and then everything spontaneously burst into existence. That statement certainly has an element of truth, to some extent.
However, what exactly happened at the beginning of time itself? And what happened before that? Questions like these have eluded the scientific community to this day.
When we start to look at things at the beginning of the universe, or even before the beginning, nothing is what it seems. The math gets fuzzy, the physics gets hazy, and conventionally accepted “truths” tend to fall apart.
How would one even begin to understand the universe at a time so close to the beginning (t=10-33 seconds)? That number has thirty-three zeroes after the decimal point! Trying to solve problems in physics at that stage of our universe’s lifecycle gets incredibly tedious. Actually, tedious might be an understatement… it gets downright impossible!

As we move closer to the singularity (just before the Big Bang), conventional laws of nature break down (Photo Credit : Andrea Danti / Shutterstock)

This impossible nature is primarily because, close to the very beginning of time, we approach what is called a singularity.
A singularity is the theorized state of the universe prior to the Big Bang. As we get closer to a singularity, the conventional laws of physics begin to break down. The scientific community needed a workaround for this. How would they analyze the state of the universe that close to the beginning without dealing with the pesky, physics-bending singularity?
Enter… imaginary time.

What is imaginary time?
Simply put, imaginary time is a mathematical simplification of time used in several equations across quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Think of real-time as a horizontal line. A single point on that line is a moment in time. To the left of that point is the past and to the right is the future.
Now imagine a second line perpendicular to real-time. This essentially represents imaginary time. Being perpendicular to real-time, it allows for everything to occur all at once. Since humans can only perceive single moments in time, wrapping your head around ‘imaginary time’ may prove difficult.
However, by allowing for everything to happen simultaneously, we’re able to avoid the idea of a beginning. Without a starting point, imaginary time becomes something that has always been in existence. There is no boundary from where ‘imaginary time’ started. In imaginary time, there was no big bang and hence, close to the beginning of real-time, imaginary time still remains very much like any other point in time. There is no fuzzy physics or hazy mathematics. There is no occurrence of that pesky singularity.
The concept of imaginary time may not immediately seem useful or easier to visualize, but mathematically, it becomes a physicist’s best friend when he or she is tired of dealing with singularities in all their calculations.

Mathematically, imaginary time is simply a line perpendicular to the time axis (Photo Credit : Bignose/Wikimedia Commons)

So how do we create this convenient perpendicular line of time? Do we arbitrarily sketch a line anywhere in space and call it ‘imaginary time’? I wish it were that simple, but when dealing with four-dimensional space-time, “simple” is seldom on the menu, so let’s begin.

How do you convert real-time to imaginary time?
The three dimensions of space, along with the dimension of real-time, form what is known as Minkowski’s spacetime. By incorporating all four dimensions, Minkowski’s spacetime becomes an area where one can plot anything that occurs in the universe simply by specifying its time and spatial orientation.
Of course, visualizing four dimensions is no easy feat. Some of the numbers may make mathematical sense, but don’t physically translate well. Moreover, there is also a boundary, which can be a cause for alarm that we discussed earlier.
Minkowski spacetime has a boundary that allows for a singularity as we approach the beginning of the universe (Photo Credit : FlashMovie/Shutterstock)

Minkowski’s spacetime must be altered to make it simpler. For this, we can translate the complexity of Minkowski’s spacetime into conventional geometrical space, which makes it easier to understand and solve for. This geometrical space is known as Euclidean space.

Wick rotation
The translation is done using what’s known as Wick’s rotation. This involves substituting the component of time in Minkowski’s space with the value for ‘imaginary time’. This involves multiplying the value of real-time by √−1, which is an imaginary number denoted by ‘i’.
Remember the flat line of real-time we discussed earlier? By multiplying the value of real-time by ‘i’, we are essentially rotating that line and turning it into a perpendicular. Once we convert Minkowski’s space into Euclidean space by rotating the time axis, we are left with space that lacks a boundary, and thus lacks any scope to contain a pesky singularity. Once we solve whatever we need to solve at a time close to the Big Bang, we can then resubstitute the values, i.e., undo Wick’s Rotation and find the final result in real spacetime, i.e., Minkowski’s spacetime.

One can rotate the time axis by multiplying real-time by ‘i’

Use of Imaginary Numbers in Science
However, the use of “imaginary” time met with some resistance from the scientific community. In fact, an entire section of the community has long been at war with ‘imaginary’ numbers altogether. They basically believe that it is a ridiculous notion. How could any number representing a real quantity be imaginary?
If we said that, where would the imagination end? Why not just make everything imaginary? A whole world made of imagination. A sort of Wonderland, perhaps with a girl named Alice exploring it for an inexplicable reason. Do we even need a reason? That could be imaginary too! We could suggest that a little rabbit caught her attention, so she followed him down a rabbit hole.

Alice in Wonderland
In fact, this is very close to the true origin story of Alice in Wonderland. The original story published in 1865 was written by Lewis Carroll, a pen name adopted by a mathematician of the era by the name of Charles Dodgson. Dodgson did not believe that it was justified to use imaginary numbers in mathematics.
He considered the notion to be utterly irresponsible. The original takeaway from his story was the sheer ridiculousness of a world with imaginary entities.

Alice in Wonderland mocked the use of imaginary numbers in science (Photo Credit : Pushkin/Shutterstock)

Think back to the Mad Hatter’s tea party. There have been several versions of this scene over the years, but every version stayed true to one attribute—the party was outrageous. It was a party where it was always tea-time, no matter the time, because time had left the room. According to Charles Dodgson, the whole world would eventually turn into a massive Mad Hatter’s tea party if imaginary numbers had their way.

Hawking’s book brought imaginary numbers and imaginary time into popular conversation (Photo Credit : Studio_G/Shutterstock)

On the other end of the spectrum sat one of the most brilliant minds in modern physics, Stephen Hawking. In Hawking’s book, The Universe in a Nutshell, buried deep among the pages of wisdom is a special nugget concerning ‘imaginary time’.
He stated that several mathematical models incorporating the variable for imaginary time are also able to predict a certain phenomenon that we can already observe in the universe. Of course, this begs the question… how imaginary is ‘imaginary time’?
If it’s able to make accurate ‘real-world’ predictions, doesn’t it warrant the title of ‘real’? Rather than being relegated to little more than a mathematical simplification, Hawking argued that perhaps it’s time to reconsider our perspective of time itself. ‘Imaginary time’ may indeed be just as real as our narrow perception of linear time.
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It's critical that you realize that there are two types of time travel, and they are radically different. Time travel to the future? Definitely possible. We know how to do it because Einstein showed us the way over a hundred years ago. It’s surprising how few people actually really know about this in their bones. He showed that if you go out into space and travel near the speed of light, and you turn around, and you come back, your clock will be ticking off time more slowly. So, when you step off it's going to be the future on planet Earth. You will have time traveled into the future. He also showed that if you hang out near a nice strong source of gravity — a neutron star, a black hole — and you kind of get right near the edge of that object, time also for you would slow down real slow relative to everybody else. And therefore, when you come back to Earth, for instance, it'll again be far into the future. This is not controversial stuff. Any physicist who knows what they're talking about agrees with this. But the other kind of time travel — to the past is where the arguments start to happen because many of us don't think that time travel to the past is possible. The main proposal that people at least consider worthy of attention for traveling to the past does make use of a weird concept called wormholes. A wormhole is something that really … Albert Einstein again discovered. The guy has like got his name written over everything in this field. It's a bridge, if you will, from one location space to another. It's kind of a tunnel that gives you a shortcut to go from here to here. Now he discovered this in 1935 but it was subsequently realized that if you manipulate the openings of a wormhole — put one near a black hole or take one on a high-speed journey — then time of the two openings of this wormhole tunnel will not take off at the same rate, so that you will no longer just go from one location in space to another, if you go through this tunnel — through this wormhole — you'll go from one moment in time to a different moment in time. Go one way, you'll travel to the past, the other way, travel to the future. Now again, we don't know if wormholes are real. We don't know if they are real whether you'll be able to go through them. So, there are all sorts of uncertainties here. Most of us think that you're not going to actually go on a whirlwind journey through a wormhole to the past. But it's still not ruled out.
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“I myself believe that there will one day be time travel because when we find that something isn’t forbidden by the over-arching laws of physics we usually eventually find a technological way of doing it.” -David Deutsch

Time travel may still be in the realm of science fiction, inspiring the plots of countless books, movies and Star Trek episodes, but not out of the realm of possibility. While basic physics allows for the possibility of moving through time, certain practical concerns and paradoxes seem to stand in the way. The “Fractal Soliton of Improbability,” postulating that any moment is unique and only happens once in the lifetime of a universe, or “Grandfather Paradox,” in which a traveler jumps back in time, kills his grandfather and therefore prevents his own existence, are the most salient paradoxes arising in relation to time travel. On the other hand, Digital Physics makes time travel both theoretically possible and creatively irresistible.

Contrary to what many people think, time travel is possible. We travel in time “all the time” and do it automatically — you traveled few seconds into the future since you started reading this sentence. What we really mean by time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space, typically using a hypothetical device known as a time machine, in the form of a vehicle or of a portal connecting distant points in time. So first, let’s examine existing time travel theoretical possibilities and related concepts:

The existence of parallel universes is no longer a science fiction but a science fact thanks to weirdness of quantum mechanics. According to Richard Feynman’s Sum Over Histories Interpretation which are widely accepted among physicists, particles such as electrons travel along all possible paths from beginning to ending points, and the world has a full spectrum of possible histories, each eternally present, however not perceptible to us. As quantum theory shows, parallel universes do exist, each with their own configurations of particles and fields with alternate timelines but beyond our current ability to directly observe them.
In order to eliminate temporal paradoxes Nature would either make travel to the past impossible, or avert the paradoxes via some other preventive mechanism, or offer an elegant solution such as parallel universes with alternate timelines. Ultimately, as we’ll see further, Nature always find a way for self-consistency.

Described by Stephen Hawking as natural time machines, black holes could only be used to travel into the future. The idea would be not to go inside of them but rather to orbit around them. Black holes are so gravitationally massive and dense that they are not only distorting space around them but also time itself, slowing it down more than anything else in the Universe. As a matter of fact, if a spaceship was orbiting a black hole while another was floating in space a bit further, the crew in orbit to the black hole would age half less than those on board on the other ship. If these spacemen stay for 10 year in orbit around it, 20 years will have passed when they’d be back on Earth, therefore allowing them to experience what appears like the future for them, with no possible return.

Cosmic strings and loops are hypothetical defects in the fabric of space-time, left over from the formation of the Universe. These odd structures are one-dimensional objects, meaning they have length, but no height nor width, and are suspected to have spread in large numbers throughout the Universe like thin cracks over a frozen lake. Also compared to imperfections within crystals, it is thought that two strings side by side would be so dense that they would have a dramatic impact on surrounding space-time, throwing a spaceship near them anywhere, anytime! These strings and loops might not be hypothetical any longer since the discovery of the “Twin Quasar” in 1979, which was revealed to be a double image of the same object claimed by scientists to be the result of the “gravitational lensing” of either of a galaxy or a cosmic string that passed between Earth and the quasar, causing it to be visible at two different time periods on the same image.

In 1949, Einstein’s friend and colleague, Kurt Gödel, one of the most brilliant mathematicians of the 20th century, introduced a new solution to Einstein’s equations allowed for time travel which did not please his fellow. Gödel found that if the Universe was itself rotating, and a spaceship was traveling around it fast enough, it would go back in time and arrive before it left. In spite of being one of the most foolproof theoretical solutions to travel through time, it’s also one of the less achievable as it might be an impossible challenge only to get out of the Milky Way, our galaxy and one of 100 billion of other galaxies in the observable Universe alone. We may, in fact, never know how enormous the Universe is, so getting out of it just sounds like an unrealistic project.

Predicted by Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity but not yet observed, wormholes are tunnels in the Universe. These theoretical passages are not only creating shortcuts through space, but also through time. Scientists have already started to think about spaceships that would be able to generate wormholes but in order for these not to collapse such a spaceship would require something poorly understood — negative matter. Another issue would certainly be the obvious risks of a random trip through space and time which could very well lead the crew to a lost cosmic paradise or to an unstable time and place of’ the Universe.

Another theoretically valid way to think about time travel is a concept invented by American physicist Frank J. Tipler, who stated that any object rotating around a hypothetical cylinder of infinite length would go backwards in time. NASA engineers have even thought of the cylinder as a way to host life during the endless journey around it. But the “Tipler time machine,” though a viable solution for time travel, seems like a hardly practical method because the very notion of infinity means that it is out of reach of human perception and consequently unfeasible.

Just like black holes and other gravitational objects like planets and stars distort space and time around them, the Alcubierre Drive is based on the idea that a spaceship manipulating negative energy could have a similar impact on space-time. NASA has already started to work on the model of real-life Star Trek-style spacecraft called IXS Enterprise, that would be able to use the Alcubierre Warp Drive and even it’s designed to create shortcuts in space and not in time it will inherently do both at a time, and may then be the most advanced time machine to this day. The IXS Enterprise would be able to generate a warp bubble around it, stretching space-time in a wave on which the spacecraft could ride, with time ahead of it being contracted and time behind it being expanded.

Theoretically, you could travel back in time if you surpass the speed of light. At the quantum level, particles do that “all the time.” During a faster-than-light travel, you would first experience time going slower and slower around as you would approach the speed of light until theoretically stopping time when reaching the speed of light, and finally going backwards in time as you would travel faster than light. If some astronauts made a round trip to the closest star system, Alpha Centauri, near the speed of light, 9 years would pass on Earth but to them the trip would only last few minutes and someone watching them coming back at that speed from Earth would see them arriving in slow motion. Yet it is considered that nothing can go faster than the 300,000 kilometers per second of light (186,000mi/sec) because it would require an infinite amount of energy. But recent studies have shed doubts about it, revealing a particle that might breach the holy laws of relativity. These particles, called ‘tachyons’, have not only been demonstrated to go faster than light, but also to have the mind-boggling characteristic of imaginary mass, meaning that they actually speed up as they lose energy. If confirmed, the discovery would prove that it is possible to move at infinite speed with no energy at all, and maybe change the way scientists think of time travel.

Wait, what? You’ve read it right! There’s a seemingly crazy idea floating around that if we live in a Matrix-like simulated reality, you may be the one actually playing this game of life in a simulated history, or going through some kind of training, or simply collecting experiences, via your avatar (your body and associated identity) in this simulation, like in a Star Trek holodeck program. Your memories and perception of “True Reality” may be suppressed for the duration of the simulation for 100% realistic feed.

Would you use a time machine once invented? What time periods would you visit? What if you could relive your most precious moments in life? Or travel 100 years in the future? If we sort out theoretical possibilities of time travel and pick the most plausible solutions to the best of our current knowledge, we could end up with these three most viable ways of time travel:

Based on General Relativity Theory of Albert Einstein, which describes 4D space-time as the fabric of our Universe as well as the properties of the moving clocks, travel to the future can be done if a spaceship either approaches a gravitationally massive black hole or accelerates near the speed of light. In this case, when the crew of the spaceship returns back to Earth, they would see that time on Earth progressed faster than theirs.
​As mentioned before, a faster-than-light (FTL) warp spaceship equipped with the Alcubierre Warp Drive (or its variation) could be a “time machine” ready to be built.

NASA engineer and physicist Harold White announced in 2013 that a warp ship such as the IXS Enterprise could allow for interstellar travel at faster-than-light warp speeds. White and his team at NASA’s Eagleworks Labs have mathematically calculated a plausible way to accomplish this using far less energy than required by the original theory, which was proposed in 1994 by physicist Miguel Alcubierre.

Travel to the past is also theoretically possible but to the best of our current understanding you would need a wormhole and ability to safely travel through it to your destination in the past. The Grandfather Paradox would be a non-issue because on every occurrence you travel through a wormhole portal to the past, you would find yourself in an alternate past or some other “twist of fate” would prevent the paradox.
​In 1989, Matt Visser published a paper showing the feasibility of traversable wormholes which could be constructed by confining “exotic matter” to narrow regions to form the edges of three-dimensional volume. The exotic nature of the edge material requires negative energy density and tension. But the laws of physics do not forbid such materials. A traversable wormhole can be thought of as the negative energy counterpart to a black hole, and so could be labeled a “white hole.”
In 2011, another notable paper was published by a team of researchers, Panagiota Kanti, Burkhard Kleihaus, Jutta Kunz, titled “Stable Lorentzian Wormholes in Dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Theory.” The researchers claim that traversable wormholes may be constructed in our 4D spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. While determining their domain of existence, the research demonstrates the stability of these wormholes.

Wormholes can be regarded as communication channels with enormous bandwidth. As Computational Physics suggests it would be much more economic to transmit an information pattern of an object down a channel rather than the object itself. It follows that “teleporting” a human would be feasible as well.

Construction of such wormhole portals is, of course, far, far beyond our present-day abilities but ultimately achievable.
Keep in mind, that even if you might be able to travel to the past, you cannot change history per se, because the history as you know it has already happened. However, if you opt to influence the course of an alternate history, say prevent some disastrous event from happening, your actions would result in an alternate timeline branching off with consequences known as the ‘Butterfly Effect’. Actually, the very fact that you find yourself in the past would immediately start to alter the history and must be considered an alternate timeline.
The famous question by Steven Hawking “If time travel (to the past) is possible, where are all the tourists from the future?” could have a fairly straightforward answer — they are invisible because the femtosecond they land in the past would be a start of a new timeline imperceptible to the “original people.” Any such moment of “landing” would contain an introduction of the new information — a time traveler, and that would supposedly initiate a new alternate timeline which was non-existent until a certain point in the future, so any of the people of the original history would be completely unaware of it. Wrap your mind around this concept — it’s NOT circular logic!
​Using traversable wormholes could be a risky endeavor as one more issue pops up when you want to travel back to the point of origin, which I call ‘The Sliders Effect’. Just like in the popular TV series “Sliders” and “Quantum Leap,” characters always jump to a parallel earth, desperately trying to find way “home.” The Sliders Effect would make your probability to return to the original timeline, or rather its closest approximation, infinitesimally small.

The most technologically viable way of time travel would arguably be artificially created simulated worlds, Virtual Reality, or I’d say real virtualities. Digital Physics sees everything as information and digital philosophers argue that any universe is virtual in nature which means this is as “real” as it gets.

At some point, we’ll be able to create simulations indistinguishable from our physical world with Artificial Intelligence-based VR programs, populated by conscious beings, sentient holograms, which go about their lives oblivious about their true essence. There may be numerous types of such ever-improving simulations but recreated human history, or its approximations, or modified timelines, or Jurassic Period trips, will most probably be the first “time machines” we invent.

Imagine an alternate timeline where some calamitous event which hindered the intellectual progress in our timeline, has never happened there. What would have happened to the civilizational development, if the library of Alexandria had never been destroyed? Or, Hitler had never come to power in Germany and the world has, in fact, avoided Word War II altogether?
Considering that time is an informational construct and the fact that we’ve come already near our own Technological Singularity, it’s fair to assume that within an infinitely large bundle of alternate timelines, there’s an alternate timeline or timelines where 2020 lies past the Technological Singularity. In other words, the Singularity has already happened on some parallel Earths. It follows that our reality well may be a computer simulation by the “post-singularitarians” who would like to see some modified history unfolding. A significant history variable might have been introduced, such as World War II to see how the civilization would persevere in its wake.
As the social study shows, Hollywood movies cash out better on human heed to survival-related fears and instincts, so AI of the future may create the next level of entertainment in the form of simulations of human histories. Remember the movie “The 13th Floor”?

The stories of tomorrow will be fully immersive. We’ll increasingly share our stories and interact in Virtual Reality. The medium, the place where those stories will unfold, exists within our creative consciousness. VR will be a direct conduit to our creative selves which will allow us to turn our minds inside out and share our dreams and stories in “real virtualities.”

Want to relive that mind-blowing spring break party with those adorable strangers? No problem! AI would retrieve your memories related to that experience, fill up any gaps, access and compile all available digital records on the Web, and recreate that for you in the form of a immersive VR experience.
Want to be a 17-year old unruly John Malkovich? Here we go! In the future, when Internet-enabled contact lenses or bionic eyes record and digitize your every move and create archives of your own subjective history, it would be easier for you to travel back to any moment in your own history or share your experiences with the world. Some privacy, intimacy and multividuality issues may consequently arise which is beyond the scope of this essay but a good topic for another day.
Real or virtual, Digital Physics makes no distinction — everything boils down to information and consciousness, i.e., experiential reality, so you well may be that time traveler from the future, you just don’t perceive that because you had set it up yourself that way before entering the simulation — the dream feels real while you are in it.

Tags: time travel, temporal mechanics, quantum mechanics, temporal paradoxes, Digital Physics, Quantum Physics, Fractal Soliton of Improbability, Grandfather Paradox, time machine, alternate timelines, parrallel universes, David Deutsch, Hugh Everett, Richard Feynman, Albert Einstein, Frank Tipler, Steven Hawking, Harold White, Eagleworks Labs, Matt Visser, Morgan Freeman, Terence McKenna, Malkovich, being John Malkovich, Spacevision, Spacex, many worlds interepretation, sum over histories, black holes, cosmic strings, cosmic loops, warp drive, Alcubierre warp drive, IXS Enterprise, Star Trek, Twin Quasar, Rotating Universe, General Relativity Theory, Tipler Cylinder, Tipler Time Machine, NASA, speed of light, tachyons, Alpha Centauri, time traveler, holodeck, the Butterfly Effect, Sliders Effect, wormhole portals, teleportation, Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, real virtualities, Library of Alexandria, technological singularity, post-singularitarians, multividuality
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Time is two fold: we have entropy, a progressive physical degeneration, and a perception, human experience honed by better measurement.

In reality there is for example no such thing as a second, it's a construct. Indeed all mathematics is. But it works.
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By human evolution, anthropogenesis or homination we mean the process of origin and evolution of Homo sapiens as a distinct species and its diffusion on Earth.
It is an interdisciplinary subject, which includes physiology, primatology, archeology, geology, linguistics and genetics. In a taxonomic sense it concerns, in addition to the genus Homo, all the species of the seven genera of the Hominina sub-tribe, of which man is the only living representative.
According to these sciences, the evolutionary history of our species is that of Homo Sapiens, which seems to have made its first appearance on Earth about 200,000 years ago.
If on Earth every animal and plant species follows time cycles with precision, it is plausible to think that humanity, as a whole, also follows a precise evolutionary cycle.
In this sense, my hypothesis is that there is a mathematical correlation between the number of years that have passed since the appearance of Homo Sapiens on Earth, the number of days that make up an Earth year, the natural number 216, and ϕ, the golden number.
In fact, we discover that (216K / ϕ) ^ (1/2) is equal to 365.37, which corresponds to the number of days that currently make up an earth year, plus 0.128, which in any case is consistent with reality, since in the past years it is assumed that the Earth took longer than today to revolve around the sun.
Alternatively, we can observe that, considering the average of the days that make up the Earth years of the last 216K years with the approximate value of 365.37, we obtain that from the mathematical relation ϕ (365.37) ^ 2 we obtain 216K.
What can we expect from Homo Sapiens when the value of 216K years from its appearance on Earth is reached?
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Nature seems to operate not only in real time, which we all know well, but also in imaginary time. The term imaginary refers to the mathematical concept (formulated for the first time at the end of the 16th century) of imaginary number, that is, of the square root of a negative number. So there is not only real time, which we know well: it is in imaginary time, where the distinction between past, present and future disappears, that Nature orchestrates the most subtle quantum phenomena.

The theory of Special Relativity in 1905 radically changed the concepts of space and time. Not only do they lose the connotation of absolute quantities, but they become relative, elastic and integrate into a single four-dimensional fabric in which reality takes place.
The quantum revolution also discovers a new possible temporal dimension: imaginary time.
In imaginary time the distinction between past, present and future disappears.
Today, science begins to wonder if it is in this dimension that the phenomena of "Synchronicity" and "Near Death Experience" take place.
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A close look at fundamental symmetries has exposed hidden patterns in the universe. Physicists think that those same symmetries may also reveal time’s original secret.

In late August 2019, paleontologists reported finding the fossil of a flattened turtle shell that “was possibly trodden on” by a dinosaur, whose footprints spanned the rock layer directly above. The rare discovery of correlated fossils potentially traces two bygone species to the same time and place. “It’s only by doing that that we’re able to reconstruct ancient ecosystems,” one paleontologist toldThe New York Times.
The approach parallels the way cosmologists go about inferring the history of the universe. Like fossils, astronomical objects are not randomly strewn throughout space. Rather, spatial correlations between the positions of objects such as galaxies tell a detailed story of the ancient past. “Paleontologists infer the existence of dinosaurs to give a rational accounting of strange patterns of bones,” said Nima Arkani-Hamed, a physicist and cosmologist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. “We look at patterns in space today, and we infer a cosmological history in order to explain them.”
One curious pattern cosmologists have known about for decades is that space is filled with correlated pairs of objects: pairs of hot spots seen in telescopes’ maps of the early universe; pairs of galaxies or of galaxy clusters or superclusters in the universe today; pairs found at all distances apart. You can see these “two-point correlations” by moving a ruler all over a map of the sky. When there’s an object at one end, cosmologists find that this ups the chance that an object also lies at the other end.
The simplest explanation for the correlations traces them to pairs of quantum particles that fluctuated into existence as space exponentially expanded at the start of the Big Bang. Pairs of particles that arose early on subsequently moved the farthest apart, yielding pairs of objects far away from each other in the sky today. Particle pairs that arose later separated less and now form closer-together pairs of objects. Like fossils, the pairwise correlations seen throughout the sky encode the passage of time — in this case, the very beginning of time.
Cosmologists believe that rare quantum fluctuations involving three, four or even more particles should also have occurred during the birth of the universe. These presumably would have yielded more complicated configurations of objects in the sky today: triangular arrangements of galaxies, along with quadrilaterals, pentagons and other shapes. Telescopes haven’t yet spotted these statistically subtle “higher-point” correlations, but finding them would help physicists better understand the first moments after the Big Bang.
Yet theorists have found it challenging even to calculate what the signals would look like — until recently. In the past four years, a small group of researchers has approached the question in a new way. They have found that the form of the correlations follows directly from symmetries and other deep mathematical principles. The most important findings to date were detailed in a paper by Arkani-Hamed and three co-authors that took its final form this summer.
The physicists employed a strategy known as the bootstrap, a term derived from the phrase “pick yourself up by your own bootstraps” (instead of pushing off of the ground). The approach infers the laws of nature by considering only the mathematical logic and self-consistency of the laws themselves, instead of building on empirical evidence. Using the bootstrap philosophy, the researchers derived and solved a concise mathematical equation that dictates the possible patterns of correlations in the sky that result from different primordial ingredients.
“They’ve found ways of calculating things that just look totally different from the textbook approaches,” said Tom Hartman, a theoretical physicist at Cornell University who has applied the bootstrap in other contexts.
Eva Silverstein, a theoretical physicist at Stanford University who wasn’t involved in the research, added that the recent paper by Arkani-Hamed and collaborators is “a really beautiful contribution.” Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of the work, Silverstein and others said, is what it implies about the nature of time. There’s no “time” variable anywhere in the new bootstrapped equation. Yet it predicts cosmological triangles, rectangles and other shapes of all sizes that tell a sensible story of quantum particles arising and evolving at the beginning of time.
This suggests that the temporal version of the cosmological origin story may be an illusion. Time can be seen as an “emergent” dimension, a kind of hologram springing from the universe’s spatial correlations, which themselves seem to come from basic symmetries. In short, the approach has the potential to help explain why time began, and why it might end. As Arkani-Hamed put it, “The thing that we’
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In the spring of 2015, through my research in the 216-digits project, I became interested in verifying how number theory was useful in revealing secrets in astronomy.

I therefore verified my intuition that a terrestrial year expressed in days was related to the prime numbers, to the metaphysical value 666 and to phi, the golden number underlying many proportions in nature, the approximate value of which is 1.61803398875.

My guess was that the average of the difference in the value of 666 minus each prime number less than 666, including 1, differed from the number of days in an earth year by the value of ϕ.

Here is the verification through the following table, in which:
  • The first column represents the list of prime numbers lower than 666, including the value 1;
  • The second column represents the differences between 666 and the list of prime numbers including 1.
  • The third column is the calculation of the average of the differences between 666 and each prime number, including 1, in their sequence.
  • The fourth column represents the difference between the exact days 365,2421875 that make up an earth year and the averages of the third column.
  • The fifth column represents the difference between the approximate 365.25 days that make up an earth year and the averages of the third column.
  • The last two columns represent the difference between the Phi value and the results of the two previous columns respectively.
Prime p666 - pAverage (666-p)365,2421875 - Av365,25 - AvPhi-(365,242-Av)Phi-(365,25-Av)

It can be seen that the final result oscillates between the value of 0.00699403 in excess and 0.00081847 in default.
So it can be seen with good approximation that: “the average of 666 minus all prime numbers less than 666, including 1 differ from the days that make up a terrestrial year of the value of ϕ”.

The following questions arise spontaneously:
  • Is the duration of an Earth's orbit around the sun constant, is it increasing or decreasing?
  • Is the mathematical relationship just verified a case that concerns only our Earth or could it also concern the other exoplanets in which there is life?
3.5 2 Votes
No one doubts that this pandemic will have a huge impact on the world.

We cannot first exclude that its lethality will be much higher than it is today; that health systems will prove incapable of caring for all those who will be affected; and in particular, that there will not be enough intensive care equipment everywhere, and that it will be necessary, in the least prepared countries, to choose, among the most seriously ill patients, those who can be treated. Worse still, such a situation could permanently tip our civilizations into the height of individualism, of the savage struggle for life. More respect for the other. More empathy. On the way to the dictatorship.

Nor can it be ruled out that the pandemic will end up having a very serious impact on the world economy. A demand crisis, followed by a supply crisis, aggravated by the interruption of production networks, which could lead to shortages, and therefore to inflation, which would push up interest rates, which could trigger the bankruptcy of companies unable to finance their debts and the ruin of financial institutions careless enough to have supported them; unemployment would explode; a major social crisis would ensue, with political consequences, again, incalculable. Especially since the wealthy would always find the means to make a fortune even more under these circumstances.

We are not there yet, and we can still do everything to avoid it. To achieve this, it would also be necessary that this crisis, without making more victims, really mark the spirits; and that we detect there as quickly as possible, in the interstices of these threatening disasters, some indications of a possible better world. The most important actions are clearly visible:

On the one hand, act massively on the most direct elements of the crisis: We need more individual and collective hygiene; more doctors, nurses, hospital equipment, intensive care facilities; more means of basic and applied research. Finally, we need to regulate the financial systems and undo the crazy debt pyramids that have taken us to where we are today.

On the other hand, to make the most of the new practices that this crisis, whatever its severity, will have imposed on us: respect ourselves, wash ourselves, watch ourselves; spend more time with family, friends, and nature; cook and spend time at the table; select the most useful trips; discover the virtues of teleworking; reduce the duration and number of meeting participants, real or virtual; really use these new technologies to listen to music, to inform, to teach and to diagnose. Produce differently, with a much less dispersed and fragile geographic division of labor. And, therefore, promote a whole new mode of growth, and new economic sectors so far, for some, neglected. Especially those of health and education, in all their dimensions. It did not take long for Wall Street to group some of these companies into a new index, the so-called Stay Home index, where we find, alongside Netflix, 33 companies directly benefiting from this crisis, as diverse as Activision. Blizzard, Slack, Teladoc, New York Times, Sonos, Amazon, Blue Apron, Alibaba, Campbell Soup, Central Garden and Pet Co.

More generally, it will teach us to take seriously the one thing in the world that is really rare, that is really valuable: time. The good times. That of our daily life, which we should not lose in futile activities. That of our personal life, which we can extend by devoting more resources to it. That of our civilization finally, which we can preserve, by ceasing to live in agitation, superficiality, and solitude. In a whole new balance between nomadism and sedentary lifestyle.
0 0 Votes
<div>In the summer 2019, someone posted a tweet suggesting that Peppa Pig, the young star of the long-running British animated children's TV series of the same name, is 7,1 feet tall which, converted in meters, is equal to 216 centimetres.
Whether this is the result of chance or a conspiracy is not obvious to everyone because few people know the meaning of the value 216.

When this information become public, the internet had quite a field day with it, though it is unclear whether or not it is true. The reports that this young animated pig is over 7 feet tall began after one viral tweet.

July 20 2019, Twitter user @Memeulous posted a screenshot from what appears to be a simple Google search. In it, Peppa's height was revealed to be an astounding and "terrifying" 7'1".

Of course, Peppa Pig's height has not been confirmed and we don't know that this young, animated star is really this tall. The magazine INSIDER reached out to Entertainment One, the company that currently owns "Peppa Pig," for comment but has not immediately heard back. Regardless, this new bit of information has resulted in a flurry of memes and jokes.

Some also realized that if we are to believe Peppa Pig is this tall, she would be the same height as NBA superstar Shaquille O'Neal and scouts should take notice.

In reality, 216 represents the 216-digits matrix and is a value that has many properties that explains the nature of time and the human being, as can be understood by consulting the website.

In particular, from the analysis of the matrix, a numerical singularity is evident which will occur coinciding with the year 2028AD.

The fact that children under the age of 5 become familiar with the value 216 associating it with the height of Peppa Pig is a very original idea that could draw the attention of adults to the period we are experiencing and its meaning in history.</div>
5 1 Votes


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